Nano Technology Database Search

Bibliography Social Context Method Theory Agent Data Statistics Related Research Relevance
1999-01. Flinn, E. 1/99 Vol 254 Iss 1. Want Hackers Out? Lock the Door. PS. P. 42Frank Peter, Sandia National LaboratoriesPeter and his team developed a Recordable Locking Device using MEMS technology. It consists of gears that unlock only when the right code is given. Theoretically, this device should be about 100 times more effective than a computer firewall.The device is about the size of a dress-shirt securityA practical application for MEMS technology. It is being used to enhance computers, rather than create computers (despite predictions for future nanotech).
1999-02. Einstein, D. 1/4/99. Sci-Fi Writers May Have Envisioned Future of Technology. SFC. P. B1William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, and Greg Bear (sci-fi novelists)No information provided – science fiction review"In the not-too-distant future, nanotech could be used to repair a blocked artery or a damaged kidney without surgery." (B.1)Nanotechnology is the hallmark of many recent science fiction novelsmedicine, manufacturing, weaponryAgain, even in fiction nanotechnology's focus is on maintaining the human body, and quickly constructing anything from chairs to buildings.
1999-04. Callahan, R. 1/15/99. Scientists make 'machine' out of DNA. Miami Herald. P. 7ANadrian Seeman, lead researcher; Daniel Colbert of Rice U's Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology"The device was made by joining two double-stranded DNA spirals with a bridge of DNA. When it's exposed to a particular chemical solution, part of the structure bends.""Scientists have made a moving part out of a few strands of DNA, a step toward building incredibly tiny 'machines' that could someday perform intricate jobs like building computer circuits and clearing clogged blood vessels in the brain." (7A)"The DNA device, however, is particularly rigid and executes motions 10 times bigger." (7A)computers, medical"However…scientists are still decades away from creating any useful machines in nanotechnology" (7A)
1999-05. Kanaley, R. 1/25/99. A merging of mind and microchip is forecast. PI. P. C01Ray Kurzweil, sci fi authorPredictionsKurzweil speculates about the future, saying that AI will change the world so that the line between humans and computers is blurred with the help of: "By 2019… nanotechnology will permit the production of transistors just a few atoms wide." (C01)-Moore's law says that computing power doubles every 18 months -Kurzweil made first print to speech machine in 1976 -Kurzweil says that computers doubled every three years in the beginning of the century but now they double every one year.AI, computers, some negative implications"threat of 'self-replicating nanobots'" (C01)
1999-06. 1/31/99. 7 L.I. Students Reach Intel Competition Finals. NYT. P. 14.LI.4Alex Wissner-Gross, Great Neck South High School seniorReport on winners of science awardsNanotechnology aligned with prizes and awardsWissner-Gross' entry for the Intel Science Talent Search is based on nanotechnology research.Prizes and awardsEmerging respect and legitmacy
1999-07. 2/8/99. Science Notebook. WP. P. A09Chad A. Mirkin and colleagues, Northwestern UniversityMirkin has turned a common 'bug' in the atomic force microscope into a feature, "harnessing the flow of water molecules between tip and substrate to pass the chemical 'ink' through a super-tiny capillary channel to the surface." (A.09)"The research could have practical implications for nanotechnology… both in testing nanotech concepts and in creating linkages between the nano-sized objects and more conventional microscopic equipment." (A.09)This discovery is described as "'a miniaturation of a 4,000-year-old technology, the dip pen.'" (A.09)nanotechnology methods As mentioned, this process could help further nanotech processes.
1999-08. Ermann, L. 2/14/99. They Have Jobs on the Slide: Microscopic Art; Miniaturists Can Conceive Intricate Worlds on the Head of a Pin. WP. P. G.02Edward T. Meyer, VP for publishing at Ripley's Believe It or Not!Nanotechnology as artwork – moving into new areas"Nanotechnology can produce just about anything on a microscopic scale" (G.02)N/AartNanotechnology, here, is regarded as an artificial way to mimic obscure art forms such as rice-grain painting and miniature carvings.
1999-09. Novak, L. 2/14/99. Bizarre Interviews Illegal Question of the Week: 'You Live at Home: Are You a Momma's Boy?' CT. P. 5Background and expertise in nanotech is cited as reason for authorityNanotech as cultural phenomenonNo data citedIn this question-answer column, it is mentioned that one of the questioners is a chemical engineer with Ph.D. work in molecular nanotechnology.N/ANanotech as cultural phenomenon – concept is “stand in” for expertise and authority
1999-11. Burghardt, L. 3/14/99. 2 Island Students In Intel Top 10. NYT. P. 14LI.6Alex Wissner-Gross, Great Neck South High School senior"He [Wissner-Gross] studied ionized molecules called fullerenes or 'buckyballs' in a granular medium in order to create tiny computer microchips that are one-billionth of a meter in size." (14LI.6)to create tiny computer microchipsNanotech associated with prizes and awardscomputersmaking computers smaller and faster
1999-13. Sterling, B. 3/29/99. A Century of Science Fiction. TIME. P. 200Science Fiction N/A - overview of sci-fi writing"SF's saga of the techno-sublime is about power, speed and transcendence of human limit. Ray guns, starships, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, nanotechnology-all beloved of SF, and every last one of them a big Technicolor disruption of the mundane." (200)Review of science fiction treatments of nanotechN/ABy positioning nanotechnology within the context of science fiction writing, it gives the impression that it is a romanticized technology, which may turn out to be more interesting in fiction than in reality.
1999-14. Suplee, C. 4/29/99. An Art Book on Physics? Yup, With the Details. NYT. P. E8Curt Suplee, authorN/A - book reviewN/AHis book, "Physics in the 20th Century", provides photographs of microdevices built by nanotechnological means.N/AConnection between physics and nanotech in science literature
1999-18. Wheeler, M. 7/99 Vol 20 Iss 7. Looking Back at the Future: Ten Years of Discover Awards. Discover. P. 110Michael Heller, Nanogen Corporation"Heller built synthetic DNA containing chromophores, molecules that glow when a laser shines on them." (110)Since the practical limit to CD-ROM data is related to the size of the laser used to etch the digital bits, only a smaller dot, such as one made by DNA will be able to push storage capacity to the limit."Chromophores respond to specific frequencies of laser, so many different dots could be packed into a single spot and be read individually by separate laser flashes." (110)electronicsThis is an example of using nanotechnological means to advance current technologies.
1999-19. Wayner, P. 7/1/99. A Stay of Execution For the Silicon Chip. NYT. P. G9scientists at Lucent Technology's Bell LabsThe team fired a beam of electrons from a scanning electron microscope at silicon wafers coated with silicon dioxide; they also tried building transistors with less than 4 or 5 atoms and recorded the resultsSilicon dioxide will near the end of its usefulness as a main component of microchips in 12 years; after that, it will be completely useless.A silicon dioxide layer has to be 4 or 5 atoms thick to successfully act as an insulatorcomputers, electronicsThis gives a specific timetable for the end of the current chip industry as far as advancement goes. If this is true, then by 2012 the need for nanotech chips will be at its height.
1999-20. Browne, M. 7/5/99. Scientists See Time Chiping Away at Technology. HC. P. 10Dr. David Anthony Muller, Lucent Technologies"The Lucent group discovered by experiment that the insulating silicon dioxide layers in a chip can block a flow of current only if they are thicker than about five silicon atoms deep; if less than this, current leaks through the insulating layer and the chip is rendered useless." (10)"…at the present pace of chip improvement, technologists will hit a barrier in the year 2012, beyond which further progress with silicon-based chips may not be possible." (10)Presently the best silicon dioxide insulators are 25 silicon atoms thick.computers, electronicsHere is the idea that nanotechnology will not bring the revolution in electronics that everyone expects, but instead will fall prey to Nature, with the realization that there is a practical limit to how small things can be made, and the atomic level is beyond our reach.
1999-21. 7/6/99. Technology's Limits. NYT. P. F3Marc Arnold, co-founder, Feyman Grand Prize in NanotechnologyNone identified"…the impending ability to build objects with atomic precision through molecular nanotechnology will herald a new era of advances, affecting the physical world with the magnitude that the invention of the transistor had on information processing." (F.3)None listedWide range of issues, mostly future speculation"nanotechnology will yield dramatic benefits to humankind on a scale we can scarcely imagine today." (F.3) -- these benefits are consistent across articles, but rarely explained in detail.
1999-23. Quinlan, T. 7/13/99. Future of Computer Chips: nanotechnology. Albany Times Union. P. E5HP Labs, UCLA, Risto Puhakka- VP of operations for VLSI Research Inc., Jonathon Hirshon, head of Horizon PRusing molecular-level engineering, logic-gates will work the same as transistors but billions of times faster and replace them Congress doubled funding for nanotech to about $440 million. With funding support UCLA and HP are working on molecular engineering to make computers smaller and faster"An Intel Pentium Chip might hold 5 million transistors, or logic gates, each directing the flow of information by rapidly flicking on and off. But a similar sized molecular-level processor could hold the equivalent of 5 billion" (E5)computers - transistorsCongress sees this as a major technology and doubled the funding--it is being taken seriously
1999-25. Takahashi, D. 7/16/99. H-P Researchers Shrink Chips to Molecule Size- Breakthrough Could Ease Concerns About Limits of Current Techniques. WSJ. P. 1Researchers at Hewlett-Packard Labs and the University of California at Los Angeles; Philip J. Kuekes, HPWhat researchers did was to "create tiny, molecular 'logic gates,' the building blocks of a semiconductor chip. They did so by using chemicals to coax molecules with the necessary electrical characteristics into specific positions… They hooked these molecular structures to wires and got them to perform the same functions as silicon logic gates." (1)"today's silicon chips are expected to hit their limit within 15 years" but this technique is a "move that could prolong the life of the electronics boom." (1)A Pentium III processor has 9.5 million components -- a nanoprocessor could have billions or a trillion such components in the same spaceelectronics, some medical applications citedIn the near future, a combination of silicon and molecular electronics may keep the consumer electronics industries going until more advanced, solely molecular structures can be created.
1999-28. Stroh, M. 7/19/99. Think Small. Baltimore Sun. no pagePhil Kuekes, scientist at HP Labs in Palo Alto; Tom Theis, scientist at IBM's TJ Watson Research Centerreplacing silicon switches by building from the atom up with nanotech"the result could be a machine that crunches numbers a billion times faster than today's computers but is tiny enough to hide behind a mote of dust."-silicon transistors have been the main part of electronics for 30 years -as they make chips smaller using the current technology the cost goes up, by 2012, a chip factory could cost more than $50 billion, and the smallest chips would still be a mountain computersnanotechnology is supposed to come in and solve all of the problems of computers, revolutionizing the way we live our daily lives
1999-29. Schlesinger, H. 8/99 Vol 255 Iss 2. DNA Conductors. PS. P 47.Hans Werner Fink and Christian Schoenberger, University of Basel's Institute of Physics"Using an electron microscope called a Low Energy Electron Point Source, the scientists grounded one end of a DNA strand and attached an electric contact to the other. They then sent electricity through the DNA to a voltmeter on the other side." (47)"DNA transports electric current in much the same way as semiconductive material" (47)A DNA "wire" would have a diameter less than 1/44,000 that of a human hairelectronics "The discovery offers scientists the potential for a durable semiconductive material that could one day be used to construct nanostructure electronic devices, such as ultrafast computer chips." (47)
1999-31. Nicholson, L. 8/12/99. A Speck of Dust that could be the size of the computer of tomorrow. Philadelphia Inquirer. P. F01HP; UCLA; DARPA- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; UCLA professor Fraser Stoddart; Meyya Meyyapan- team manager for NASA's research centercreating a logic gate using synthetic molecules: "They took two perpendicular metal wires that were a few millionths of a meter thick, and at the point where the wires crossed, placed a single layer of synthetic molecules called redox-active rotaxanes. When they applied electricity, the molecules switched, changing in shape and in electrical conductivity." (F01)"A single molecule switch only takes one electron to open or close. It is possible…for a molecular computer to perform a quintillion...operations per second on a single watt of power." (F01) logic gates: a basic element of computerscomputerspotential applications: clothing paint, micro-bot swarms, image data processing, war-gaming simulations
1999-32. Hilkevitch, J. 8/29/99. Lose Weight, The NASA Way Students Gravitate to Houston For A Little Zero-G Action. CT. P. 10Scott MacLaren, technical advisorClass trip to NASA HoustonN/AOne of the advisors for a team of students involved in NASA's college science competition is an expert in molecular nanotechnology.Societal issues – education of STEM disciplinesIf young people have qualified mentors with interests in nanotechnology, it is more likely that in the future we will have a good base of individuals working in the nanotech fields.
1999-35. Riordon, J. 10/99 Vol 255 Iss 4. Tiny Tweezers. PS. P. 35Chris Keller, MEMS Precision InstrumentsNone detailedKeller plans to market micro elecromechanical tweezers, designed to manipulate objects between 1 and 11 microns, within a year"techniques borrowed from computer chip manufacturing have been used to build a variety of tiny machines with levers, gears, and springs measured in tens of microns." (35); the tweezers are MEMS devices mounted on computerized actuatorsmedicine, nanotechnologyThe MEMS are a first step to begin building actual nanotech machines. There is also mention of a medical use of the tweezers, namely to operate on tiny surfaces such as retinas or embryos.
1999-36. Sinha, G. 10/99 Vol 255 Iss 4. Tiny Test Tubes. PS. P. 36scientists at Stanford University"Researchers build the vesicles by placing an artificial membrane on top of the chemical they want to study, which is dissolved in a liquid such as alcohol. Lowering the air pressure above the membrane causes the alcohol to evaporate, forming bubbles in the membrane that trap the target chemical." (36)Nano as methodology in chemical and medical applicationsScientists have been able to study the inner portions of cells using manmade miniature containers called vesicles.medicineHere is a practical use of a tiny nano or MEM structure.
1999-38. Gingrich, N. 10/18/99. We Must Fund The Scientific Revolution. WP. P. A.19Newt GingrichProposes awards for nanotech to inspire new research"nanotechnology… will have as big an impact on our lives as transistors and chips did in the past 40 years." (A.19)No specific data reportedautomotive, defense, public safety, medicineThis is a call for funding. Nanoscience is a groundbreaking new field whose potential can only be tapped with adequate monies.
1999-39. Hamilton, D. 10/21/99. Venerable H-P Labs to Drop Its 'Aw, Shucks' Attitude. WSJ. P. B6Dick Lampman, director of Hewlett-Packard Co. LabsHP Labs demonstrated the ability to create circuit elements (logic gates) on a molecular scale."…'chemically assembled electronic nanocomputers' could extend the computer industry's ability to keep building faster, cheaper and smaller computers for decades" (B.6)HP Labs is credited with creating the first pocket calculator, the first programmable calculator, and significant printer technologiescomputersNanotechnology is again seen as a sustaining tool for the computer industry.
1999-40. Markoff, J. 11/1/99. Computer Scientists are Poised for Revolution on a Tiny Scale. NYT. P. C1Researchers at Hewlett-Packard and the University of California at Los Angeles; researchers at Yale and Rice UniversitiesThe HP-UCLA teams "successfully fashioned rudimentary electronic logic gates… that were the thickness of a single molecule." (C.1); Yale-Rice teams created similar switches that can be repeatedly opened and shut"If molecular memory devices could be constructed, they might offer vast storage capabilities for just pennies in cost." (C.1); "…if such systems are to be assembled into workable computers, it will require radically new architectures alien to today's semiconductor-based computers." (C.1)The Clinton administration is considering a National Nanotechnology Initiativeelectronics, economics (nanotech as a disruptive technology), military defenseWhile the focus here is ultrafast, fault tolerant computers, researchers are conscious of the disruptive effect nanotechnology will have on the semiconductor industry as well as other electronics markets. As such, it is touted as a potentially dangerous blessing.
1999-41. Boyd, R. 11/2/99. In future, less is even better. Charlotte Observer. P. 2ARichard Smalley, Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry Nanoscale Science and Technology Center at Rice University; NSF Assistant Director Eugene Wong; National Science Foundation to the President's Office of Science and Technology PolicyNo specific methods listedTo build a personal computer that would fit on a pinhead, to deliver drugs inside cells of the body, to sense the presence of biological weapons, to create clean energy through photosynthesis, to produce very strong materialsalready, they can fit 28 million transistors on a computer chip the size of a thumbnail, but nanotech will make that thousands of times smaller.computers, national defense"Nanotechnology has become possible in recent years thanks to powerful new tools such as atomic force microscopes…In the next few years, many more are expected to flow out of laboratories into the real world." (2A) ---slightly more optimistic than other articles of its time that are saying nanotech will not become practical for decades has become a "top scientific priority" (2A) to Congress
1999-42. Fixmer, R. 11/6/99. How the Wedding of Brain and Computer Could Change the Universe. NYT. P. B9Ray KurzweilN/A - only theory"In Mr. Kurzweil's vision of the future, the man-machine hybrid will be accomplished not through some Frankenstein-like amalgam, but through an elegant technology: microscopic, self-replicating robots called nanobots that will be introduced through the bloodstream and will interact with individual neurons throughout the brain." (B.9)No specific data reportedmedicine, intelligence, hackingHere, nanotechnology is seen as a way to complete the next evolutionary step of merging man with machine. While nanobots in the body would cure bodily ills and increase mental faculties, issues of mind control, and abuse through hacking are brought up.
1999-44. Ackerman, T. 11/7/99. Molecular Computer on Hot Track/ Rice Scientists: Working Systems a Decade Away. HC. P. 37Jim Tour, Rice University professorResearchers are conceptualizing a tiny computer built within a test tube.; Tour's team has been able to create molecular-scale computer switches which can be opened and shut"These [nanotechnological] switches, wires and other components, when perfected, likely would be made up of an array of organic molecules and would constitute a replacement for silicon chips…" (37)The computer will be 100 billion times faster than today's PCs, and incredibly inexpensive.medicine, computers, economicsNanotechnology will bring about a new industrial revolution, as all silicon-based industries are switched over to nanotechnology.
1999-46. Amato, I. 11/8/99. Can We Make Garbage Dissappear. TIME. P. 116Reid Lifset, editor of the Journal of Industrial EcologyResearchers of nanotechnology (will) build products from scratch, one atom or molecule at a time."'A lot of the consumer goods and industrial equipment could become dramatically smaller when nanotechnology comes online. That, plus more efficient recovery of the discarded goods, ought to translate into huge reductions in waste.'" (116)Progress has already been made in developing molecule-sized transistors, wires, and batteries.recycling/environmentalism, electronics, computersHere, nanotechnology is seen as a panacea to remedy the problems of garbage disposal. It will be the ultimate recycling tool.
1999-47. Lemonick, M. 11/8/99. And Will They Go Inside Us? TIME. P. 93engineers at M.LT., Princeton University, and Carnegie MellonNone listed – speculation"Within a few decades… they [nanotechnologists] will be creating machines that can do just about anything, as long as it's small." (93)"Already, nanotechnologists have built gears and rotors far thinner than a human hair and tiny molecular 'motors' only 50 atoms long." (93)medicine, computersThe focus here is medicine, where nanobots constantly patrol an individual's body, ensuring maximum health is always maintained. It also provides an open-ended view that nanotechnology has limitless potential.
1999-48. Holt, J. 11/10/99. This is really Something. WSJ. P. A20Richard FeynmanNone- biographical information about Richard Feynman presented in a story about cultural use of science and the numerical value of zeroFeynman presented as intellectual and theorist who conceptualized new ways of thinking about zero. Credited with theorizing quantum eletrodynamics.Feyman's "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" talk detailed ways of building microscopic computers and factories, and "helped launch today's nanotechnology revolution." (A.20)Cultural and historical relevance of mathematics and science. Challenger disaster. Nano's larger influence on social culture – early theorists have provided important contributions to culture, history, society.
1999-49. Gugliotta, G. 11/13/99. Big Expectations for Micromachines; Uses Now Include Air Bags, Ink Jets. WP. P. A01Samuel L. Miller, Sandia National Laboratories supervisor of advanced concepts; Paul McWhorter, Sandia National Laboratories deputy director for microsystemsTo make micromachines, "layers of silicon are photo-engraved with the micromachine's design, then etched with acid to free the moving parts." (A.01)Micromachines have the potential to "inspire radical change in almost any aspect of human endeavor" in the near future. (A.01)There are about 600 labs doing microtechnology research worldwide; $4 to $6 billion worth of microdevices were sold in 1998communications, automotive industry, weapons/defenseMicrodevices, like nanotechnologies, have the potential to revolutionize nearly every aspect of human life. The difference is, microdevices are poised to do so in practical ways much more quickly than nanotech.
1999-54. 12/13/99. Science Notebook. WP. P. A11Charles M. Lieber, Harvard University and collegeThe pair crafted a set of "nanotweezers" by "attaching two bundles of carbon 'nanotubes' to either side of a glass rod." (A.11)Theoretically, such a set of nanotweezers could be used to manipulate future nanostructures."In tests, the tweezers could manipulate polystyrene spheres 300 nanometers in diameter and semiconductor wires 20 nanometers in diameter." (A.11)Methods for molecular manufacturingThe nanotweezers provide an important step in creating/perfecting the process of creating and manipulating nanostructures.
1999-57. Aeppel, T. 12/31/99. Industry and Economics-Think Small: Imagine Changing a Chair into a Table at the Flick of a Switch; Welcome to Nanotechnology. The Wall Street Journal.P. R40K. Eric Drexler; Harold Craighead, Cornell University professor, head of the Nanobiotechnology Center; T. Ross Kelly, Boston College professorKelly - tried, and succeeded, to make a chemically powered, molecular motor"There are serious scientists and engineers suggesting that through nanotechnology, we could eventually… build them [our much-desired little things] from the ground up, one atom at a time." (R.40); "…you'd create factories at the molecular level able to churn out virtually any product desired from materials ubiquitous in the atmosphere" (R.40)Unlike everyday objects, nanoscale matter is dynamic (can be changed after construction); obstacles in power and control still hinder nanotechnology; Kelly - his motor is 78 atoms large, and fully functional, although not currently usefulcomputers, warfare, consumer electronics, materials manufacturingNanotechnology may make it possible to build objects that can instantly turn into other objects with the flip of a switch; also, this technology brings the potential for atomically perfect, terrible weaponry; full-scale nanotechnology perfection will likely bring about an economic shift as labor and manufacturing no longer become human jobs
1999-58. McKinnon, J. 12/31/99. Clinton Plans Major Initiative on Scientific Research. The Wall Street Journal. P. A12President William ClintonPresidential initiative to promote nanotechnology Presidential legitimacy The President proposed a new initiative which will "increase funding on a broad range of recent federal efforts in scientific research. It also will propose to expand work in cutting-edge areas such as supercomputers and nanotechnology" (A.12)medicine, computersNanotechnology will have the potential to precisely engineer and manufacture pharmaceuticals