Nano Technology Database Search

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1986-01. Petit, Charles. 6/15/86. Movies of Atoms/ With Special Effects by Quantum Physics. SFC. P. 15 Calvin Quate- professor of applied physics at Stanford, IBM Research Center at Almaden Richard Sonnenfield and Paul Hansma physicists at UC Santa Barbara- first to make microscope work under water. works by feeling with tiny needles the texture of the electron clouds around the object and maps out a detailed image with an automatic sensor called "piezoelectric" ceramics."Direct observations on surface atoms should lead to better electronics, superior structural materials and, possibly, deeper understanding of how the chemistry of life works." (15)"functional tunneling microscope created -has glitches, and crashes -research still being done on it"medicalThis ability to view microscopic objects could lead to being able to build structures and tiny electronic circuits at some point in the near future.
1986-02. 10/16/86. UC Scientist Wins Nobel in Chemistry. San Francisco Chronicle. P. 1Ernst Ruska- Fritz Haber Institue in Berlin Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer- IBM Research Lab in Zurich - Nobel Prize for Microscopyworks like a phonograph - a tiny needle the size of one atom passes over the object being viewed. The tunneling part is the control of keeping the "needle a precise distance from the surface of the object." (1) to be able to view smaller objects clearer"An electron microscope uses a beam of electrons rather than light to illuminate the object being studied. Because the wavelength of electrons is much shorter than that of light, much smaller objects can be seen in an electron microscope." (1)synthesis of drugs, plastics, and industrial chemicalsprimary use- viewing circuits on silicon chips
1986-03 Saltus, Richard. 12/29/86. Progress in Genetics, Exploration. Boston Globe. P. 55Robert Weinburg- Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and MITN/A"-scanning tunneling microscopy made it possible for scientists to view individual atoms, and their bonds. -beginning of powerful microcomputers"Swiss inventors won 1986 Nobel Prize for scanning tunneling microscopy.Human genetics, space exploration, structure of the universe, earth science, astronomy and cosmology, anthropology and paleontology, biology, technology, computers, mathematics, medicine"Although technological disaster and environmental concerns dominated the picture in 1986, science proceeded productively along many paths and yielded significant advances in areas such as human genetics, space exploration and the structure of the universe." (55)
1987-01. Richards, M. 1/5/87. Scientists Optimistic about idea of atoms as building blocks. Houston Chronicle. P. 5Eric Drexler- research affiliate at MIT's Artificial Intelligence lab, founder of Nanotechnology study grouptalking more about ideas of what is to come, not referring to actual work in this articlegoal of nanotech is to make our lives easier so we can be lazier, have more free time, work less, and live more luxuriously"-precise movement of atoms will allow us to construct bits of the universe -scale of billionth of a meter -trillion times faster computers"medicine, computers, culture - social lifestylebroad idea that nanotechnology will solve all of our problems by giving us a luxurious lifestyle of fine dining, fancy clothes, and no working. Much of nanotechnology is still quite unknown and seen as this magical science that will change all of our lives
1987-02. Thompson, L. 2/24/87. The tedious process of sequencing a gene. WP. P. z14Dr. Leroy Hood, chairman of the division of biology at California Institute of Technology; Dr. George Church, an assistant professor of genetics at the Harvard Medical School; Cambridge, EnglandProcess for mapping and sequencing the human genome: 1) Many cells of one type are ground up and their DNA extracted 2) DNA fragments are packaged into the head of a virus that can smuggle the human DNA into a bacteria cell in such a way that it will reproduce with each new generation of bacteria 3) At this point the scientists will have a living library of human DNA stored in bacterial cells. 4) Next steps are to figure out about individual learn more about individual pieces of DNA fragments.N/AmedicalDr. Leroy Hood's machine could sequence as much DNA in 3 days as it took Chen and four technicians to do in two years. With devices such as scanning tunneling microscope (STM) will make sequencing of human genome easier and less costly.
1987.03. Sussman, V. 7/5/87. Just say nano. WP p. w.35Eric Drexler, founder of Nanotech study group at MIT includes biologists, chemists, physicists, computer scientists. viewing molecules; scanning tunneling microscope; atomic force microscope; molecular scale parts; all enable researchers to move atoms around to build new materials. Nanotechnologists believe it will be possible one day to build robots with molecular-scale parts, “nanoassemblers” Drexler claims are “inevitable”future research: bacterium can replicate itself in 15 minutes. Replicating assemblers operating at same speed, each replicating itself, would multiply from one assembler to one trillion in 10 hours. In less than one day – ton of new material. materials, structures, computing, chemistry, fuel, matter conversion, (CO2 into coal & oil); also human benefits – end poverty, starvation. Also notes potential risks, vats of chemicals & terrorism. “our wost mistake would be to dismiss this as science fiction” (w.35) -- able to make anything, cells, multiply, feed the world, create rocket fuel, building materials, supercomputers.
1987-04. 11/4/87. Giving Birth to Artificial Life Software Evolves into reality. Albany Times Union. P. 1B. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Stanford U. only speculativenanotech will make computers 1000 times faster than today's computersN/Acomputers"a speculative science called 'nanotechnology' that may permit a future generation of engineers to build a new class of molecular machines" (1B)
1988-01. Quinones, R. 1/19/88 “How nano-seconds became the modern enemy” WP p. z.20an analysis of time through classical thinkers to present including Rifkin, Boorstin, Kipling, Shakespeare, Petrarch, w/ reference to Renaissanceinterpretation of date and time as agent of realityWe are entering a new temporal world where time is segmented into nanoseconds – future is programmed in advance, nature is re-conceived as bits of coded information and paradise is an artificial simulated, environmentliterature and theorycriticism and analysis of timeto counteract sense of dispersion and distraction, encourage capacity to engage in fruitful labor for long un-interrupted periods of time. To counteract historical isolation, encourage history – not of past – but of connectedness of things. Nano used as agent of dispersion (nanosecond displaces time)
1988-02. Trausch, S. 1/24/88. Cool customers believers in the relatively new science of cryonics are banking on the idea that there could be life after death. Boston Globe p.16.Eric Drexler, began research at MIT science library and is visiting scholar at Stanford University's computer science department.Researching field of molecular machines and studying the possibility of creating microscopic computers – connected molecular manufacturing with cell repair, “Robert Ettinger's book...there was no technology that would have even remotely backed him up” (16) assumed that molecular manufacturing could be that technology. Theory is that molecular manufacturing provides method for cell repairhypothetical – data is that “40 years ago chemotherapy treatments for cancer, genetic engineering, test-tube babies, artificial hearts, and even CPR would have been considered science fiction,” (16) so the development of molecular machines is not too far out of reach. Reference to Ettinger, R. (1962). The prospect of immortality. But notes that there was no appropriate technology then to accomplish cryonics. Microscopic computers might be programmed to repair damaged cells in the body. Coins term “nanotechnology”. Drexler, “science makes a mistake by judging the future by the present.” (16)Article demonstrates early persuasive narrative of nanotech.
1988-03. Hilts, P. 1/25/88 Molecular Ruler WP p. a03University Minnesota, Brookhaven National Lab Published in J. American Chemical SocietyMiller and group developed method of measuring to level of nanometer size of an atom. They use iridium atoms. astonishment – measuring individual atoms. Doing it because it is possibleclusters of iridium atoms, scanning transmission electronic microscope. Already measured on scale of micrometers“To step into a future in which supercomputers are the size of sugar cubes – it is necessary to measure and manipulate objects the size of individual molecules” (a.03)iridium might be chemically attached to ends of lines or wires on a tiny electronic device to see if they are the right length (need measuring devices for small machines)
1988-04. Weiss, R. 3/7/88. “Welcome to the space age pharmacy (Biomedicine)” WP. p. c.03 Biomedical engineersdrug development – primary studies on rats; nanocapsules microscopic spheres made from biodegradable polymer development from tissue glue from surgery- spheres are ingested and later dissolve getting chemicals into patients is difficult – some chemicals are rapidly broken down and others are expensive and not convenient. Goal is more precise drug administration mostly hypothetical- some advanced clinical trials included w/ projects on insulin; contraception drugs easier to administer to patients – nano seen as solution to drug resistance problems; little detail on specifics of process/materials
1988.05. Burgess, J. 4/26/88. The struggle for speedier computers. WP p. c.01Cray Research Inc., ETA Systems, competition to create faster computersMake a machine faster by: making it smaller – less physical space to traverse; by making faster switches; by creating parallel and independent processors.Engineers “racing” to build next generation of supercomputer; overcoming Einstein's constraint – speed of light. Assumption that speed is necessary and “advances” are inevitable.nanosecond is used as target measurement: 1 calculation every 6 nanoseconds; believe that a 1 nanosecond machine will be built. example of tech transfer: Minnesota supercomputer center; one of largest university-affiliated facilities. Includes biographical info on Seymour Cray founder of Cray Research: folksy reclusive, uncomfortable with adulation his work has spawned.progress in computer design; economic development; technological competition; nanosecond as target; inevitability of technological development
1988-06. Krier, A. 10/27/88. How Nylon Changes the World 50 years ago Today, it Reshaped the Way we Live-and Think. LA.P. 1Eric Drexler, Stanford U's computer science dept.Nylon is heat set so that it coils and can be stretchedthe technology used to make nylon, stringing sub-units of polymers together in certain order, is the same as nanotech which folds up the polymers to create molecular objectsNylon led to recombinant DNA because both Nylon and DNA are polymers, and recombinant DNA will lead to curing diseasesSocial separation (rich look down on poor for wearing an unnatural material as nylon), World War II (Nylon was banned from stores; it all had to go to the war cause)interesting that a synthetic material (that has changed our lifestyle by making clothes more of a second skin and creating safety nets for space shuttles) leads to curing diseases
1988-07. Schudel, M. 12/11/88. Putting fate on ice costs a cool $100,000, but cyonicists say you'll be forever grateful. Chicago Tribune p. 1.E. Drexler's Engines of Creation which provides hypothetical method for cyonics. Claims are contradicted by Dr. J. Baust director of the Center for Cryobilogical Research at the University of New York at Binghamton. Baust is president of the society for cryobiology. Cryobiology is different from cyonics (biology-living material at cold temperatures vs. restoring life to dead tissue)Drexler's book provides theoretical method for cyonics – restructuring body molecule by molecule. Claims are refuted by Baust who doesn't want cyronics confused with his research area which studies how animal and plant tissues respond to very low temperatures“Aging is natural but so were smallpox and our efforts to prevent it” (1) writes Drexler. “We have conquered smallpox and it seems that we will conquer aging...the technology underlying cell-repair systems will allow people to change their bodies in ways that range from the trivial to the amazing to the bizarre.” (1)hypothetical. "We're just going too far with some of these claims" (1) says Dr. John Baust...."it's almost too far for science fiction." (1)Cryonicists regard Drexler's book “with almost religious fervor.” (1) Interesting confusion with “legitimate science” in Cryobiological research. “One of the fundamental differences” (1) Baust says, “is that the cryonics practitioners are starting out with dead tissue and building science fiction on top of it. To say you can go and bring somebody back to life, that's a big jump. We might as well have a biochemist with all the chemicals on the shelf to form human life and send a flash of lightning through it to create a person.” (1)The big hope is that the aging process can be reversed: Not only will you live again but you'll be able to go back to your past and choose the age you want to be. Fatal diseases will be cured after the fact.
1988-08. Rensberger, B. 12/18/88. Discovering New Worlds in the Realm of the Cell Series. The Washington Post. P. a01Linda Thomas, cell biologist at University of California @ San Fransiscomanipulate cells at molecular level to help cure diseases- e.g. t-PA drug acts as catalyst to convert natural blood into clot dissolver; blood cells near the clot product natural t-PAthe purpose of studying cells at molecular level is to help with curing of diseases"-using molecular cell biology, t-PA drug helps with heart attacks -self assembly explains how snow flakes are made and other scientific phenomena"biomedicalviewing cells at molecular level could lead to cure of cancer, common cold, aids, and heart disease because they all deal with cell mechanism failure.
1989-01. Burgess, J. Richards, E. & Hamilton, M. 1/1/89. Full-service phone lines. WP p. h.01AT&T, Bell Labs, Eric Drexler; FAA; Defense Dept. NASA, Apple-Attempting to store 1 billion years of compact disc quality sound in a device the size of 1 cubic cm. -harness photons, units of lightNeed for better, more efficient technology; creating faster computers with the assumption that faster is betterISDN lines; machines as small as molecules; building 100 atoms needed to construct small computer would take 1 minute. Molecular assemblyEnvision creating machines size of pin heads. Assemblers would have power to create food, shelter household objects, just about everything
1989-02. Andrews, E. 2/11/89. Patent File/ The latest in News Ideas and Inventions. SFC. P. A5Synaptics Inc. of San Jose; Stephen Grossberg and Ennio Mingolla, computer science professors at Boston Universitycomputers can sense things as humans can using circuits and gates that act as neurons and pathways in the human brain.studying the natural workings of the human body and using the same methods to create faster smaller circuits.invention of thin film with holes one-hundred millionth of a meter with holes acting as plug-in board for tiny molecular switches (based on observation of self-assembly)…will lead to molecular memories and molecular circuitsmathematics, biology, TVstudying things at the molecular level (nanotechnology) helps in creating smaller more powerful objects, eventually using the idea of self-assembly, making our lives easier.
1989-03. Booth, W. 5/22/89. Where Smaller is Better:: The Frontier of Microengineering. WP. P. A03National Science Foundation, Cornell U's School of Engineering and Applied Physics, U of CA@ Santa Barbara, U of TX@Austin, National Nanofabrication Facility at Cornell.Making wires so thin and lasers so small that thousands of them bundled together would still be invisible to the human eye. Research use a technique called molecular beam epitaxyThis steady march toward the infinitely small is largely driven by the microelectronics industry, which craves ever smaller and therefore faster switches and circuitstransistors and wires microchips packed with millions of switches and thousands of tiny laser sources that could beam info across the landscape of the chipengineers and scientists are working on different yet similar projects throughout the countrybetter, more efficient and faster switches, circuits, transistors, etc.
1989-04. Clark, D. 7/6/89. Mondo 2000: A Trip to the World of Cyberpunks. SFC. P. C3New magazine called Mondo 2000 has audience of computer hackers, novelists, and futurists. The article cynically refers to these people as 'cyberpunks'N/AArticle starts off saying that a new, almost 'science fiction' magazine, called Mondo 2000 recently came out, containing crazy ideas - for example nanotechnologyMondo 2000 is a new magazine for people interested in futuristic ideas, and turning them into realitiestechnology, TV's, computers, chatlinesnanotechnology seen almost as a joke at this point to the popular culture - science fiction, not taken seriously, too unrealistic. Obviously it is not a joke to scientists who are using it to change the world, one molecule at a time.
1989-05. Turner, F. 10/29/89. Life on Mars/ A professor's otherworldly dream. SFC. P. 12.Z.5Frederick Turner, Founders Professor of Arts and Humanities at UT @ Dallasrecombinant DNAusing molecular technology we can recreate objects from Mars here on earth in process referred to as gardening-Marsian canals first viewed in 1876 thought to have been created by intelligent life forms -author does not want to prove life on mars, but rather talks about how we are trying to create Martian lifescience fictioncreating plants, then insects to pollinate the plants, then animals, and eventually a "new nation of human kind" that takes Martian traits to adapt to earth, and terrestrial traits to adapt to Mars
1990 - 01. 1/1/90. Looking to the Millenium. Boston Globe. P. 51The experts in different fields conducted the research; Marvin Minsky, MIT Computer Science and Engineering professor; Arthur Caplan, director for Biomedical Ethics at University of MinnesotaDid not give method, just listed findingsSociety, aging, diseaseSociety abuses things, tremendous inequities in wealth"This means there should be less focus and funding for the 'just say no' campaigns and more funding for research into the process and causes of addiction and for the treatment of addicted people." (51)"The other very exciting area is that there's a new science called nanotchnology, which is making machines out of atoms…That's going to take a couple of decades, but a lot of people are beginning to work on it now. That means getting computers and other kinds of machines that are very small- motors that you can't see, like muscle fibers. That will change the world also in many ways" (51)
1990 - 02. 1/1/90. 90 People to Watch in the 90's. San Francisco Chronicle. No page. Eric Drexler, president of Foresight Institure in Palo Alto Massachussetts Institute of Technology"...Foresight Institute, a Palo Alto think tank he formed in 1986…""…can destroy viruses, or a machine with molecule-sized parts that can extract pollutants from the environment""…nanotechnology will be a breakthrough for medicine, computers, manufacturing and the environment.""It's the difference between coal and diamonds, cancerous tissue and healthy tissue." broad range of fields covered in nanotechnology: biomedical, environmental studies, computers, manufacturing"Nanotechnology will give us thorough control of the structure of matter."
1990-03. Schrage, M. 1/7/90. Where Technology is taking us Innovation: Consumers were offered looads of new gadgets and choices in the 1980's. LA. P.1Georgetown University Humanities professor- O.B. Hardison Jr., Stanford University scientist Eric Drexler, Harvard's sociologist Daniel Bell, Xerox PARC, Bell Labs, MIT's Media Lab"The questions have shifted from 'How?' and 'Why?' to 'Why not?' and 'How much?'" (1)idea behind nanotech: "Archimides once said, 'Give me a lever long enough and I can move the earth,' nanotechnologists now say, 'Give us a lever small enough, and we can move a single molecule.'" (1) "to engineer machines that can be injected into the human bloodstream to clean out clogged arteries." (1)6/10 top ten grossing movies were about technology In 1980's Fax machines, cell phones, test tube babies, CD's, VCR's and MTV transformed our perceptions of technologytelecommunications, computers, pharmaceuticals, materials science"In the 1980's, technology became personal, portable, accessible and pervasive." (1) It was popular in movies, and people were interested Then in the 1990's, it was not a matter of choosing from options, but designing and customizing your own (e.g. computer interface). People had increased expectations and technology was focused on engineering, creating products
1990-04. Kelley, P. 3/13/90. Zap! It’s atomic tiddlywinks. Charlotte Observer. P. 1AJames A. Spudich, a cell biologist at Stanford Medical School; Donal Eigler and Erhard Schweitser of IBM's Almaden Research Center in San Jose, CA; Jack Preses, a physical chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island; James Kaufman, manager at the Almaden center at IBM; Ahmed Zewail, a physical chemist at CaltechBy studying the movement of, and force that atoms have on each other, their behavior and their sizeHigh demand of the field of research; no longer micro or mini, but molecular - everything getting smaller, faster, betterAtoms and ATPother research (biomedical, computers) does similar studytry to store data at the level of individual atoms "In the not-so-long term, the nanotechnology boom will mean fuels that burn with ferocious power but leave only the faintest puff of pollution, computers smaller than shirt buttons and such complex molecular re-engineering of body tissues that mutant human forklifts and 90-mph hamsters are by no means unthinkable." (1A)
1990-05. Van, J. 4/9/90. Downsizing set for Quantum Leap- Literally. CT. p 1IBM's Almaden Research Center, Richard Siegel - Argonne materials scientist, AT&T Bell Labs, MIT researchers - Henry Smith and Dimitri Antoniadisscanning tunneling microscope (STM) - "uses the quantum behavior of electrons to suspend the tip of a tungsten wire about an atom's width above a material to be studied" (1)nanoprocessed materials are much stronger and malleable -at the point in technology where we can put 4 million transistors onto a fingernail-sized memory chip -able to manipulate clusters of a dozen atoms now, rather than 100 or 1,000 -transistors have gotten as small as .75 micrometers (100x smaller than humamarketing, auto parts, metal processing, nanotech is finally being introduced into the marketplace, and used commercially rather than just research (e.g. ceramic automobile engine parts)
1990-06. 4/14/90. The hope of celestial and atomic eyes. CT. P. 8NASA, Hubble Space Telescope, International Business Machinescomparing the two forms of technology - one viewing the big picture, the other viewing the extremely small picturethe scanning tunneling microscope invented in 1981 is compared with the Hubble Telescope because they will both show us things we have never seen and never imagined.-Hubble $1.5 billion- size of railroad car, orbits around earth and sends back images, has 94 1/2 inch mirror -able to arrange 'IBM' on a nickel plate with atoms xenon gas, using tunneling microscopespace technologynanotechnology (manipulating things at atomic level) is just as important as being able to see the huge picture with the Hubble telescope. Nanotech has for more practical applications that will lead to fuel efficient auto engines with new ceramic materials, and tiny electronic circuits to make computers super-fast and super-smart.
1990-07. Schrage, M. 7/19/90. How Prizes can Help Spur New Technology. LA. P. 1Nobel Prize, MacArthur Foundation grant, physicist Richard Feynmanstudying the things in the past that came about because of motivation from prizes…comparing them to current day awards.The Nobel Prize has stopped encouraging creativity, and rather just picks a big name who did something important. Prizes should challenge people to be innovative, think of something new - a solution to a problem.-Charles Lindbergh made his flight across the Atlantic to win $25,000 prize -Napoleon awarded prize to person who could invent way to spin linen into fabric -Feynman presented with many prizes for manipulating very small particlesN/A"These challenges [in the form of prizes] helped launch the discipline of 'nanotechnology' - the technology of engineering machines and processes billionths of an inch in size." (1)
1990-08. Nicholls, P. 7/29/90. Goodbye to the Gutter. WP. P. x.06Greg Bear - Sci Fi author of Queen of Angelsbook reviewcriticizing science fiction"while simultaneously giving us an in-depth future (transformed by the same nanotechnology Feeley uses…)" (x.06)Science fictionnanotechnology is seen as something futuristic that will 'transform' the world
1990 -09. 9/24/90. Greater Expectations. Newsweek. P. 58.Michael Chrichton, M.D. - authordiscusses findingsThroughout the 20th century, medicine has advanced primarily by improving curative care: intensive-care units, bypass and transplant surgery, antibiotics and chemotherapy. Microtechnology will revolutionize medicine with futuristic devices, ranging from biosensors that dispense drugs from under the skin to nanomachines, hardly larger than red blood cells, that course through our bloodstream scrubbing the insides of our arteries.As patients, we will expect more procedures to be done quickly, painlessly (and inexpensively) on an outpatient basis.Our present concepts of medicine will disappear. Medicine will change its focus from treatment to enhancement, from repair to improvement, from diminished sickness to increased performance.
1990-10. Thomas, L. 11/14/90. Etymology and Immortality. Wall Street Journal. P. A14Science fiction authors Lewis Thomas and Ed RegisJim Holt reviews books "Et Cetera, Et Cetera: Notes of a World Watcher" and "Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition"Holt is extremely critical of the books. He makes fun of their futuristic ideas, such as nanotechEd Regis talks about attaining immortality, abolishing scarcity, transcending our biological nature and overhauling space - all within 50 years. "A few decades down the line your brain will be thawed out, fixed up by an army of molecule-sized robots, and lodged in a newly cloned anatomy." (A14)sci fi, futuristsmakes fun of nanotech, adding sarcasm "The little robots, by the way, will be only one of the fruits of nanotechnology…By exploiting the principle behind DNA,…we will be able to alter the structure of matter atom by atom and fabricate literally anything in unlimited quantities. Imagine,...endless foie gras without torturing geese." (A14)
1990-11. Van, J. 11/23/90. Nothing to sneeze at These gears work, but they're smaller than pepper grains. CT. P. 1Henry Guckel - University of Wisconsin engineering professor"silicon micromachines [smaller than these gears] are created with the same etching technology that produces integrated computer chips, the workhorses of modern electronics." (1)Guckel created first metal micromachine (a gear), smaller than grain of pepper. These gears will eventually be put together to make tiny medical tools that will repair tissuesgears are 50 microns thick, human hair 75, silicon microdevices 4 micronengineering "It opens a new vista for nanotechnology, a hot research field that promises to revolutionize a broad range of human enterprises, from medicine to automobile manufacture." (1) "Wisconsin researchers praise silicon as a nanotechnology material" (1) -anything nanotech must be good
1990-12. Sladek, J. 11/25/90. Some California Dreaming. WP. P. x.08Science fiction author, Arthur C. Clarkeauthor's opinionnanotechnology is listed as one of the many wonders in a sci fi book called The Ghost From the Grand Banks forecasting the future.the book lectures on many theories in optical cables, nanotechnology, personal phones, elaborate undersea robots and diving suits, a new refrigeration principle, self-cleaning windowssci finanotechnology is presented as a wonder, and compared to undersea robots - something unrealistic, almost humorous
1990-13. Brotman, B. 12/2/90. 1000 Years of Progress A Preview of coming attractions. Chicago Tribune.P. 15Joseph Coates - futurist and President of a research firm in Washington, D.C. Gregg Maryniak, Executive VP of the Space Studies Institute in Princeton, NJ World Future Society magazineauthor's opinionLittle factual evidence. Article was written as speculative entertainment - to imagine what the future could possibly (though not likely) be like"Nanotechnology is a theoretical process by which we could build food, houses, computers and anything else out of individual atoms of such substances as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen." (15)science fiction, virtual reality, space exploration and colonizationBasically the author says that nanotechnology will revolutionize our world because we can have anything just by saying the word. By 3000 Earth dwellers will be rare and lunar vacations will be common…all because of nanotechnology
1990 - 14. Suplee, C. 12/9/90. Technology; Mini, Micro and Fempto: The least is yet to come. The Washington Post. P. k.03James A. Spudich, a cell biologist at Stanford Medical School; Donal Eigler and Erhard Schweitser of IBM's Almaden Research Center in San Jose, CA; Jack Preses, a physical chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island; James Kaufman, manager at the Almaden center at IBM; Ahmed Zewail, a physical chemist at CaltechBy studying the movement of, and force that atoms have on each other, their behavior and their sizeHigh demand of the field of research; no longer micro or mini, but molecular – everything getting smaller, faster, betterAtoms and ATPother research (biomedical, computers) does similar studytry to store data at the level of individual atoms "In the not-so-long term, the nanotechnology boom will mean fuels that burn with ferocious power but leave only the faintest puff of pollution, computers smaller than shirt buttons and such complex molecular re-engineering of body tissues that mutant human forklifts and 90-mph hamsters are by no means unthinkable." (k.03)
1990 - 15. Suplee, C. 12/9/90. Getting ourselves in nanogear. The Washington Post. P. K03Samuel L. Miller, Sandia National Laboratories supervisor of advanced concepts; Paul McWhorter, Sandia National Laboratories deputy director for microsystemsElectromagnetic rays are projected through a patterned mask onto a surface covered with a "photoresist." Where the beams strike the surface, they alter the chemistry of the resist, making it easy to wash away the solvent. The shadowed sections remain, leaving the mask pattern etched in the surfaceFinding another use for synchrotron raysThe project employed the same kind of lithography used to etch the super-thin circuit lines on a computer chip. Another research project had to be done with the use of synchotron rays and the same kind of lithography. These results of the study could be relevant to the strengths of different metals for many expected applications, including tiny "roto-rooters" for blood vessel surgery, miniature pressure sensors and accelometers, "microknives" designed to cut as single fertilized egg in half and ultra-precise gear clusters for satellites.
1991-01. Chandler, D. 4/1/91. Images Reveal Shape of Thin Film Crystals. Boston Globe. No pageLos Alamos National laboratories, IBMused techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopywanted to be able to see the microscopic structure of crystalline"crystals form corkscrew-shaped pyramids, rather like the ancient ziggurats that were the basis of the biblical story of the Tower of Babel." "The resulting pictures show that the crystals form as small islands and then grow upwards and outwards in columns following a corkscrew pattern."computers- computer chips, electronic devicesscanning tunneling technology, a product of nanotechnology is now seen as a useful and practical method of viewing objects microscopically
1991-02. O'Connell, L. 4/11/91. Your PC may become a source of sexual ecstasy. ATU. P. T23sci-fi author Joe Haldeman, researchers of MIT, Milton Wolf, sci-fi and sociology professor at U of NevadaN/Ananotech is used in aiding with virtual reality, specifically sexually satisfying VR."the equipment includes the traditional joystick or mouse, plus more sophisticated gizmos such as 'data gloves' and 'data suits.'" (T23)virtual reality, science fiction, entertainment"The only people who really have a grasp of this stuff are the technocultists who speak a language no one else understands. It includes lingo such as 'nanotechnology' and 'tweaking the equations.'" (T23)
1991-03. Carroll, J. 4/24/91. Where Everybody Knows your "Nom." SFC. p. E12Dave Vohaska, owner of intellectual sports bar in Oakbrook, Ill. Called Sidd Finch'sN/Athis is an educational sports bar for academics, scholars, Harvard graduates, and scientists to discuss things such as nanotechbaseball players: Nolan Ryan, Oil Can Boyd, Rickey Henderson, musician John Cage, writers Alice Miller and Oscar Wildescience, literature, art, music, all academic fields are encouraged at this barin a comedian show, a joke was made about nanotech "And Oil Can Boyd. Ever see that guy play? I think they're beta-testing nanotechnology there. Every time he gets shelled, three guys at Cal Tech lose their grant money." (E12)
1991-04. Kelley, P. 5/28/91. Lucrative award to boost scholar's magnetic levitation study at UNCC. Charlotte Observer. P. 5BDavid Trumper, MIT doctorate; UNCC precision engineering professor Robert Hocken"his work concerns precision motion control, which deals with movements and measurements of microscopic proportions. A magnetically suspended spindle might be used, for instance, when a precision lathe requires very precise rotary motion." (5B)"magnetic levitation has many potential engineering uses, ranging from high-speed trains that float above their tracks to high-powered microscopes." (5B)"A nanometer equals one-billionth of a meter. One human cell averages about 10,000 nanometers in diameter. It takes 100,000 to equal the diameter of a strand of hair." (5B)physics"...a reasearch team working in nanotechnology, which has been hailed as the next technological revolution." (5B)
1991-05. Saffo, P. 6/26/91. Good things to come in tiny packages. LA. P 3Eric Drexler, nanotechnology researcher Drexler's idea: "memory device made up of a millimeter-square cube of folded protein crystal that has been 'grown' onto a more conventional silicon substrate in such a way that its memory structure matches up with micrometer-scale circuitry." (3)silicon is reaching its limit of what it can do for electronic devices, need something more efficient, like nanotech"The result would be a thumbnail-sized chip with a storage capacity exceeding that of several thousand of today's floppy disks." (3) currently (1991) they can fit 1 million transistors on a die, in 10 years 100 millioncomputers, memory deviceslooking at nanotech more realistically and practically saying nanotech will not be seen in every workstation by 2000, but it will help fill in some of the gaps of silicon and be used in specialized devices. Does not say nanotech is all powerful but rather refers to it as "infant nanotechnology"
1991-06. 8/16/91. World's Tiniest Device: Just an Atom. The Miami Herald. P. 1Ateam of US scientists, physicists at IBM's Almaden Research Center.using most sophisticated electron microscopes"an electrical switch consisting of one atom." (1A)"the prefix nano- means one billionth" (1A)electronics, medical"The tiny device could be an important first step in developing microscopic machines used to maintain microprocessors or to repair damaged arteries inside the body, a field of emerging science known as nanotechnology." (1A)
1991-07. Brotman, B. 9/2/91. Universe of the mind Sci-fi convention a party for the misfits who run the world. CT. P. 1Glenn Chambers - a computer programmer, 49th World Science Fiction Convention, Erica Van Dommelen, assistant editor of BioScience magazineJournalistic report on the conference by the authornanotechnology is seen as something confusing, something that only scientists understand, and need to explain to non-scientists: "Happily, there are fans willing to explain planet-building and terraforming and nanotechnology" (1)N/Asci fiNanotechnology is seen as a term that only scientists understand, and is often associated with science fiction.
1991-08. Kening, D. 9/2/91. Hugo Awards Honor Science Fiction's Finest. CT. P 10science fiction writers- lois McMaster Mujold, Joe Haldemon, Mike Resnick, Terry Bisson Tim Burton- Sci Fi directorN/AWorldcon Conference, known as Chicon V- one seminar discussed nanotech6100 attendees, from 20 countries, 80 seminars in many fiels - literary, scientific, academic, etc.sci fiIn the debate about nanotech, the article did not make it sound positive, quoting scientist/novelist James Killius "I don't know about you, but I don't want a hardware crash to take place in my pancreas." (10)
1991-09. DeGregori, T. 9/22/91. A glimpse of the future: books to be read with caution as well as interest. Houston Chronicle. p. 15Eric Drexler and Chris PetersonUnbounding the Future book reviwcritic not convinced that nanotech is such a big part of our future that we should decrease spending on other sciences to spend more on nanotech-the author is a big proponents of nanotech and uses the book to convince people of its importance -"'Nano' is a prefix meaning 'one-billionth,' so they are talking about very small machines that do big things." (15)sci fi, foreign competition- beating Japanese in technology race."No problem, be it pollution, disease or restoring species, seems unsolvable or beyond the amazing powers of this technology." (15) -the critic says sarcastically about nanotech
1991 - 10. Raymo, Chet. 9/23/1991. The incredible shrinking technology. Boston Globe. P. 38Engineers and scientistsScanning tunnel microscopes. "Another Japanese research group etch out 'Peace 91' on a surface by blasting out atoms one by one" (38)Discovered what they might be capable of"little tricks demonstrate what can be done. By the end of the current decade we may have nanoprocessors, computer-on-a-chip that are a thousand times smaller and faster than any existing today" (38)"Some visionary scientists foresee tiny smart robots on the nanometer scale, roaming around like vast invisible clouds of nanognats, building houses atom by atom, decomposing trash, or clearing fatty deposits from the bloodstream." (38) The idea that the discovery of nanotechnology did for a decade what the development of micro-technology did for the 80's
1992 - 01. Raymo, Chet. 1/20/92. Carbon is no Joe Schmoe. Boston Globe. P. 28Scientists, chemists, American Association for the Advancements of Science."Scientists have learned how to produce these molecules in substantial quantities. Buckyballs have chemical electronic and magnetic properties that promise myriad useful applications." (28)"Now scientists have discovered a whole new class of three-dimensional carbon molecules, of which buckyballs were the first. Already we are hearing about inflated buckyballs, buckybabies, buckytubes, bunnyballs, and buckycages." (28)"…carbon atoms cycle from place to place, stirring and animating the surface of the planet." (28)"Most importantly, carbon is the element of life. Every living thing is composed of carbon compounds." (28)"…scientists discover new ways of arranging familiar atoms into substances that will change our lives." (28)
1992 - 02. Raymo, Chet 3/9/92 "In a world of smart 'things,' why not self-sorting socks?" Boston Globe p. 28"A new alliance of engineers, chemists, physicists and computer experts is working to endow materials such as concrete and metal with 'nervous systems' and 'intelligence.'" (28)Speculation of smart materials of the future"Electronic circuits built into the skin will process information on the spot from the fiber-optic network. Millions of tiny pressure-sensitive actuators will respond by stiffening the skin or damping out vibrations." (28)"Smart structures. Intelligent materials…They are the future." electronicsMore convenient and less complicated lifestyle in most cases. Example: Tidy Table Dinnerware Dishes that can be activated - say by a loud clap - to clean themselves.
1992 - 03. Raymo. Chet. 5/4/1992. Could the Martians have taken it? Boston Globe. P. 30Scientists and the author. Research on where the carbon that is released into the air settles.Study of how the carbon gets released into the air and where it goes from there is still not absolutely knownCarbonScientists found a giant mushroom growing in Michigan, that weighs 22,000 lbs. People in Nauru are storing carbon to use it later for their economic activities. Each year several billion tons of carbon is vanishing into the blue and no one knows where to find it, or how to research it.
1992-04. Fall 92 Vol.140 Iss.27. Is Anybody Out There? Time. P. 78-80Freeman Dyson- Institute for Advanced Stdy in Princeton, NJ K. Eric Drexler, author of Engines of Creation Konstantin Feoktistov, a former Soviet cosmonaut Eric Jones, physicist at Los Alamos labsmostly speculation and imaginationnanotech will be used to create tiny robots that will create devices, including radiostransmitters to send messages to earth, when we try to colonize Marspredicted that in 500 years humans will be exploring many planets, and population will be 1 trillionspace explorationnanotech is used in a futuristic sense to be sent into space to create radio transmitters to send messages back to earth
1992 - 05. Clarke, Don. 11/13/1992. World's Tiniest Devices. SF Chronicle. B2Eric Drexler, Marvin Minsky; Henry Guskel, Ralph Merkle Massachusetts Institute of Technology; University of California at BerkleyMicroscopes"…to set up molecular manufacturing machines that could isolate individual atoms of an element and use them to rapidly churn out structurally perfect tools, machines and even buildings." (B2)"…a computer simulation of various gears that could be constructed by making rings and cylinders out of diamond molecules, chosen for their unmatched hardness?" (B2)chemistry, computers"devices made with nanotechnology would use only the atoms they need, requiring only a tiny amount of material to give them tremendous strength. Where today's computers require about 1 billion atoms to store a single bit of computer data, a nanocomputer in 2010 might require only one atom per bit." (B2)
1992 - 06. Clark, Don. 11/23/1992. Nanotechnology May Radically Alter Industry. San Francisco Chronicle. P. B3 Eric Drexler, Market Intelligence Research Corp., Marvin Minsky, University of California at Berkeley, Henry Guckel, Ralph Merkle, Xerox Palo Alto Research Centerby creating mechanical structures out of tools and techniques used in making computer chips. Micromachines - gear, motors and other devices the size of dust particles - are beginning to move out of the laboratoryStudying of molecules and atoms to know how they work. "…researchers at the University of California at Berkeley and other institutions started creating mechanical structures out of tools and techniques used in making computer chips." (B3) related research to health, medicineEventually, there could be a procession of tiny robots small enough to swim in a human bloodstream to clean out arteries. Tiny medical robots that could deliver mini-doses of anti-cancer medicine to specific parts of the body.
1992-07. Hooper, L. 12/29/92. In the Lab: It Doesn't Get Much Smaller Than This. Wall Street Journal. P. B2International Business Machines Corp.- Phaidon Avouris, Whan Lyo IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Centerscanning tunneling microscope"the once-blurry honeycomb jumps into glorious focus…from the tip of his viewing instrument, a scanning tunneling microscope" (B2)new STM's can be as small as a pencil eraser and cost more than $500,000science"it's at this never-before-seen scale [nanometers] that 21st-century circuitry will likely be built" (B2)
1993-01. Apr 93 Vol 242 Iss 4. Why Scientists are Thinking Small. PS. P 71-77physicist Mark Reed from Yale University, Richard Feynman- California Institute of Technology physicist, Eric Drexler, James Murday - chemist at Naval Research Laboratory, Don Eigler- Physicist at IBM's Almaden research center, Richard Smalley"to date, the most intense research efforts in nanotechnology have been focused on devising atomic and molecular-scale computers or computer components." (71-77)biggest nanotech accomplishment is STM (Scanning Tunelling Microscope) Build-time issue: even though they were able to create the IBM icon with atoms, it took 35 hours to do that "But because positioning the STM is a painfully slow process, as Eigler admitted at a recent nanotechnology conference in Tokyo, doing something like this 'would take the age of the universe'" (71-77) -referring to creating a copy of an encyclopediabuckyball- most important chemical find in years, 64-atom molecule could be useful for capacitors and other electronic componentscomputers, air pollution, stronger thinner materials"the field that Feynman proposed - trying to devise computers and other machines with components not bigger than atoms or molecules - has become one of the hottest frontiers of scientific research. IBM and virtually every other major computer company are pursuing the subject" regardless of whether this is true or not, it sounds like the author is trying to hype up this 'product,' nanotechnology." (71-77)
1993-02. May 93 Vol 242 Iss 5. Molecular Marvels. PS. P. 91-96Eric Drexler - Stanford University researcher, Palo Alto think tank- Foresight Institute, AT&T chemist Louis Brus, Fraser Stoddart at the University of Birmingham in England, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic in La Jolla, CA, Ralph Merkle of Xerox's Palo Alto Research center"To do this, many researchers are looking to proteins. Why proteins? Just imagine the incredible range of functions proteins perform in the body... If we could tailor these marvelous nanomachines to our needs, they could be ideal for a score of applications especially microscopic devices for repairing damaged organs or environmental cleanup." (91-96)using proteins to help in creating nanodevices.-use diamond (hard tough and conducts heat well ) as material f to make mechanical structures stronger (protein is soft and mushy) -Merkle 'planning' for nanotech - created computer model of circular bearing five nanometers wide containing 2808 atoms global wealth, environment, industry (molecular manufacturing) "Nanotech [promises] a replacement for industry as we know it; a sustainable basis for global wealth; and an opportunity to roll back environmental crises." (91-96) - Eric Drexler "Many researchers - even some working in fields related to nanotechnoloy - say Drexler's predictions are too speculative to be scientifically meaning[ful]" (91-96)
1993-03. Goodman, H. 7/4/93. A sanctuary lit by brainpower string theory? This is not your father's think tank. Philadelphia Inquirer. P. B01.Edward Witten, a theoretical physicist at Institute for Advanced Study; Institute for Scientific Information.there are no computers in the institute, they all just think up ideas and use blackboardsWitten's goal is to find a theory that explains all the forces of nature from subatomic particles to galaxies.200 of world's smartest people work at the institutestring theory, quantum mechanics"In the 1920's…no one quite saw the value of quantum mechanics…But that gave us semiconductors, the laser, magnetic resonance imagery, nanotechnology" (B01)
1993-04. Aug 93 Vol 243 Iss 2. The Elecrtric Eye. PS. P 60-64.Duke U's Eye Center, Dr. Eugene de Jaun of Duke U, Dr. Mark Humayun-resident opthalmology at Duke, Dr. Roy Propst-professor of biomedical engineering at UNC@Chapel Hill, Dr. Howard Phillips of Semiconductor Research Corp. in Research Triangle Park.does not say exactly how nanotech will work into it, just that it will be used to insert the visual array into the eyenanotech is used to insert a folded up 14x14 pixel visual array into the patient's eye through a tube, and then it is unfolded once in place-0 pixels = total blindness, 1 pixel = light or dark visual field, 4 px = light, dark, motion, orientation, 64 px = identify letters, 256 px = able to read, 1024 = to form a low-grade fuzzy image, 1 million = perfect visionbiotech, opthalmology, medical researchnanotech is seen as a solution to the problem even though they do not specify how it will work, or how nanotech really applies. It is almost as if they just say that the solution is nanotech and expect people to accept that because it is an elite science.
1993-05 Chandler, D. 9/6/93. Buckyball Family is Growing. Boston Globe. P. 33Scientists and researchers, Chemist Fred Wudl Harold Kroto of the University of Sussex in England Yi-Han Kao-chemist at the University of Buffalo Martin Saunders-chemist at Yale University Chemist Martin Jarroldtest tubes buckyballs "may make the strongest fibers ever discovered,high-tech composites…" (33) "..discovered a buckyball-based superconductor that works at a much higher temperature than any previous carbon-based material.." (33)"The tiny atomic balls fit perfectly inside a natural basket in the HIV virus that causes AIDS. They fit so snugly that they effectively clog up a part of the virus that is essential to its reproduction." (33) other researchers are concentrating on putting things inside buckyballs, using them as atom-sized containers - the world's tiniest bottles"The tiny fibers, a billionth of a meter across, could eventually form the basis for ultrastrong and ultrahard materials that are increasingly sought after for high-tech applications." (33)
1994-01. Apr 94 Vol 244 Iss 4. A Home to Suit Everyone. Popular Science.P. 48.designer Charles Owen at Illinois Institute of Technology only speculation"Walls would contain special honeycomb-like layers that, upon request, would reshape to pipe accessible drinking water into rooms. Wall tiles would switch patterns at the touch of a button. And a simple tug would stretch tabletops into new shapes." (33)no evidence to back it up, only speculationhousehold items and appliancesSpeculative ideas that nanotechnology is supposed to create
1994-02. Achenbach, J. 5/29/94. Wire me up, Scotty. We have seen the future, but we still can't tell you what it means. The Washington Post. P. W10 Author conducted a research of the future technological advances and their implications and affects on our lives. ARPA, Pentagon, Military Industrial Complex- Futuristic Gadgets Division, Stephen Squires- Commander of the Enterprise, Greg Simon, President Clinton, George Mason University, Professor of Public Affairs Huge Heclo, Vice President Gore, John Battelle, Howard Rheingold, Steve Krause, Oracle Corp., Dave Lockton, Xerox PARCCompared to the changes the techno-logical advances had on society in the past, such as the telephone and TV. Researched the potential changes the future technology can bring to the people through interviews and observations.New technological innovations coming out before we are ready for them, replacing the existing ones, in such a speed that people cannot adopt to it yet. DVD players are out before people have learned how to record one TV show while watching another one on their VCRs Technological changes and their affects on societySocial implications / aspects of nanotechnologyFinal interpretation whether the technology is good or not to the reader, guiding them with the series of questions to lead them towards their own process of thinking
1994-03. Ehrman, M. 6/9/1994. Character Sketches Computer Users are Depeloping an Art Form All their Own. LA. P. 1Steven Sullivan, computer programmer Mike Jittlov - independent filmmaker, Rob Harley-computer scienceN/Ananotech compared to ASCII art workN/AASCII, computer programmingnegative - "Harley sees the march of nanotechnology as the death knell for character-based creativity." (1)
1994-04. Van, J. 7/3/94. Hearbreak Relief Vitamin D Found Effective in Treating Psoriasis. CT. p 2. Purdue University, Dor Ben-Amotz, a chemistry professor at Purdue"These devices, known as molecular optical probes, use molecules as microscopic spies that relay information about their environment through the light they emit." (2) - Dor Ben-Amotz"to monitor the properties of lubricating oil between ball bearings, and they say the process could be used to monitor tiny circuit elements in computer chips and activity within living cells." (2)"molecules of dye injected into liquid and then illuminated with visible light are working as spies for scientists who want to measure such things as temperature in spaces smaller than a human hair." (2)manufacturing, medicineideas are being developed into tools for nanotechnology
1995-01 Carroll, J. 2/1/95. Tapping Dickens for Clues to the Future; New sci-fi master Neal Stephenson pens a follow-up to cu. San Francisco Chronicle. P E1 fictional bookN/A – book review"His new book is based in a time when, once again, national boundaries have been made archaic by technology." (E1) ",,nanotechnology that allows bacteria-size gadgets to do the scut work" (E1) buildings that float – vision of future in which basic materials include nanotechshows technology advancements
1995-02 Boyle, A. 3/7/95. Writing career takes off in cyberspace; 'diamond age' gives author access to fame. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. P. C1 Neal Stephenson, his home, bookN/A – book review"..society had rediscovered the benefits of shared cultural values, with the result that one of the world's dominant cultures is neo-Victorian in dress and attitudes." (C1)"…microscopic machines can build anything ranging from a passable breakfast to whole synthetic islands." (C1) "The Diamond Age"-dominant technological thread has to do with nanotechnologySci-fiction prediction: "Nanotech is so widespread that computers and sensors, time-bombs and bomb defusers float in the air like motes of dust, finding their way onto skin and into the bloodstream" (C1)
1995-03. 4/12/95. Nanotechnology: At Cornell, A little discovery could mean big things. ATU. P. C8researchers at Cornell University , Noel MacDonald TMS Technologies in Ithaca, NY, U of ChicagoNo information provided"a thumbnail-sized device capable of holding the information contained on 10,000 standard hard drives." (C8)scientists want microelectomechanical scanning tunneling microscope to store millions of bits of information on tiny head of pincomputers"This is potentially a major breakthrough for the computer industry. Right now we are capable of moving the device, scanning two dimensions, and getting images. By lining up eight of them it could read one byte at a time. We are talking about a size-scale of an individual atom at a time." (C8) - Cornell spokesperson
1995-04. Chandler. D. 5/15/95. Atom by atom; Can we build computer chips and machines from the bottom up? Boston Globe. P. 37 Cornell University's National Nanofabrication Facility, K.Eric Drexler, Noel McDonald, David E.H. Jones of the University of New Castle, Nabil Amer-IBM's Watson Research Center, Forsight Insitute. "They have built the world's smallest 'scanning tunneling microscope,' a device the width of two human hairs that can be used to manipulate indivi- dual atoms thousands of times more rapidly than any existing device." (37) "…but it took the researchers hours just to move those 35 atoms." (37)"Most scientists would now agree that atomic-level manipulations may indeed lead to amazing advances in computers and biotechnology, and perhaps some other fields, but many still discount the more grandiose predictions as science fiction." (37) "…the replacement of sticks and stones by metals and cements, and the harnessing of electricity." (37) "Molecular machines will permit the assembly in short order of virtually any device or material out of the most basic of raw materials. By just punching in the right instructions on a little console, the notion goes, gazillions of tiny, invisible machines would swing into action and produce anything from a VCR to a diamond ring to a T-bone steak to a moon rocket, at virtually no cost.." (37)
1995-05. Lovejoy, T. 5/28/95. Bugs, Plants, and Progress. NYT. P. 4.11Nitto Company in Japan"Using an enzyme from a bacterium called Themus aquaticus found in a Yellowstone hot spring, this polymerase chain reaction can make possible a quick diagnosis of a strep throat." (4.11)"vast as the spill is, a solution may lie in the microscopic world of bacteria and other microorganisms." (4.11)1994 oil spill near Usinsk, 1000 miles northeast of Moscow "Japan is investing $25 million to search for promising heat-resistant enzymes from organisms that live around the thermal rifts at the bottom of the sea" (4.11)science, medicine, environment, industrial processes"Furthest out on the horizon is nanotechnology - the ultimate in miniarization." (4.11)
1995-06. Day, K. 6/22/95. Laboring Toward Lilliput; Md. Firm's goal: A chip-sized Biotech Lab. WP. P. D8Bayview Research Campus of Johns Hopkins University, Philip Goelet - Molecular Tool's co-founder and president"In the same way that a computer chip manipulates electrons through microscopic wires, biotech chips would manipulate fluids along microscopic channels." (D8)"trying to compress most of the functions of a biotechnology laboratory that is, say, 0 feet by 15 feet, into a one-inch square chip." (D8)condensing a test device 3'x5'x1/2' to 2'x3' with almost no thicknessmedical, biotechnologybiotech deals with objects visible to the naked eye - not quite at the nanotech level yet
1995-07. Langreth, R. Aug 95 Vol 247 Iss 2. Scoping for Data. PS. P 34. Cornell Engineers - Yang Xu, Scott Miller, Noel MacDonald"ultra-fine metal tip powered by several small motors. When the tip is passed closely over a metal surface, the STM [Scanning tunneling microscope] can observe the properties of individual atoms and even push atoms along the surface." (34)prediction about what STM's will do: "…work in concert to create computer storage systems that are the size of a fingernail yet can hold as much data as several thousand of today's hard disk drives." (34)-researchers took 9 years to make STM smaller and faster -estimate that 10,000 STM's will fit on a single chip -STM invented in 1980computersnanotech's applications, such as the STM, will help make computer storage smaller.
1995-08. Maslin, J. 8/4/95. Film Review; Villian by Computer. NYT. P. C14Brett Leonard - film director of VirtuosityN/A – film reviewvirtual reality thriller in which Russel Crowe is known as "the prototype of future humanoid nanotechnology" (C14) and regenerates body parts with silicon cells through nanotechLeonard directed The Lawnmower Man and Hideawayalso film, virtual realitynanotech is used as a means of entertainment - sci fi in a movie
1995-09. Gabriel, T. 9/3/95. Earning It; Peering Into the Murky Jobs Crystal Ball for 2015. NYT. P. 3.9Paul Saffo, computer industry analyst at the Institute for the FutureN/A"the jobs picture 15 to 20 years out will be shaped by the evolution of technology" (3.9)-government predicts hot jobs 10 years into the future, but after that, do not know -baby boomers will turn 65 in 2010 and increased need for medical fieldsbiotech, jobs"Future technologies that could become big include biotechnology…and nanotechnology." (3.9) seen as a futuristic application
1995-10. Carreau, M. 10/29/95. Thinking Big about Small/ Scientists champion emerging nanotechnology. HC. P. 1NASA's Johnson Space Center, Robert Stroud project engineer - Aerospace Corp think tank, Rice University Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Richard FeynmanN/Ausing tiny components for computing, navigational and communications in space travelhope to have 20 lb satellites with nanotech's help integrated circuitry, medicine, automotives, cell phonesturning point: "It's real. We are not talking about science fiction anymore." (1) - Robert Stroud
1996-01. Schultz, P. Jan 96 Vol 17 Iss 1. One Molecule at a Time. Discover.P. 72.chemist Peter Schultz and physicist Paul McEuenof University of CA @ Berkeley"The key to the technique is to put a dab of platinum on the microscopic tip of an atomic force microscope. The scientists then prepared a surface of azide, a compound containing three nitrogen atoms, and bathed it in alcohol that had been spiked with hydrogen..." (72)found a way of triggering chemical reactions molecule by molecule using atomic force microscoperefining the methods of manipulating chemical reactions with nanotechmaterials science"This breakthrough opens new possibilities for nanoengineering and materials science…the technique lets researchers see what happens as they go about changing the world, one molecule at a time." (72)
1996-02. Kadaba, L. 1/4/96. Nano Age to Supplant Information Highway, Futurists Predicting. HC. P 1Arthur Shostak, professor of sociology at Drexel University; Robert Riley, president of product design business in Scottsdale, AZ; Andy Hines- staff futurist for consulting group Coates & Jarrett in Washington, DC; Clem Bezold - executive director of the Institute of Alternative FuturesPredictions about future technologynanotech cars will become safer, everything will be custom tailored, nanomedicine will use tiny machines to clear out cholesterol from arteriesat Robodoc, surgeon uses computer workstation to view 3-D images of patient's femur, and makes prosthetics from itmedicine, automobile, manufacturing"Nano is the third great revolution - agriculture, industrial and nano." (1) - eveyone expects nano to be the next big thing "The information age will pale next to the nano age, where tiny tiny machines will revolutionize fields such as health care" (1)
1996-03. Johnson, Steve. 1/21/96. Boomers with longevity fever seek magic pill. Charlotte Observer. P. 1AInstitute of HeartMath; John Renner, runs Comsumer Health Information Research Institute; Life Extension Foundation; Dr. Wallace Sampson, chairman of National Council Against Health Fraud; Frances Koavarik, executive director of the American Academy of Anti-Aging MedicineNanotech method for anti-aging: "Still others put their faith in nanotechnology, which foresees the day when molecule-sized machines will prowl the human body, wiping out diseases and rejuvenating damaged cells." (1A)"Many of those who use such [anti-aging] products believe they have multiple benefits. Some of them in hopes of making themselves smarter. Others hope to improve their sex lives." (1A)"About $2 billion is spent each year on anti-aging products." (1A)anti-aging - medicalnanotechnology is viewed as an aid to this negative "cult" of anti-aging proponents
1996-04. Uehling, M. Feb 96 Vo 248 Iss 2. Light Touch for Cells. PS. P. 24Paul Kopelman, a chemist at University of Michigan"shines light down one end of an optical fiber, the other is heated by a laser and stretched to a tapered tip. Then the tip is bathed in coatings selected to react with the biological compounds…Afterward, when light is pumped through the open end of the fiber, the fused tip glows." (24)"probe could test the effects of drugs on individual cells, or check embryos for birth defects." (24)a fiber-optic probe that is 1000th the width of a human hairmedicalnanotech is creating practical and useful devices
1996-05. Ackerman, T. 4/28/96. Small Science-Big Promises/ Rice University Researches on Cusp of Nanotechnology. HC. P 33James Haw-Texas A&M chemistry professor, Michael Carroll, dean of Rice's school of engineering, Eric Drexler, Rice president Malcolm Gillisresearch being conducted at Rice's Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology"try to produce artificial blood…work to make power cables so tiny they are impossible to see yet 100 times stronger than steel…look for ways to collect and store sunlight so solar power actually can meet future energy needs." (33)the Nanoscale Science center took $32 million fund raising, $23 million contributions, 85,000 sq. ft, 12 new faculty positions.medicineapplications in fields such as more powerful computers
1996-06. Bhargava, R. 4/28/96. Taking Fear Out of High Tech's Future. NYT. P 13WC.3Dr. Rameshwar Bhargava, physicist at Pace U. and president of Nanocrystals Technologyreferring to the use of nanocrystals in flat screen tv's: "materials can absorb a lot of ultra-violet light from the sun, which is non-useful light for a solar cell. But we can take this UV light and convert it into useful visible light if we provide a thin coating of nanocrystal particles." (13WC.3)nanocrystals will help in flat screen TV's, condensing electronic storage, making solar energy more efficient, less radiation in mammography, and new weapons to attack cancer cells"if we use a magnetic particle of this size in magnetic tape, one can record information in very high density - 10,000 times smaller than today." (13WC.3)electronics, medicine, solar energy - environmentnanotech has a wide variety of applications that are starting to become more practical, specific and plausible
1996-07. Harmon, A. 9/2/96. Cyberculture; A Weird and Warped Look Into the Future. LA. P 3World Science Fiction Convention in AnaheimN/Ascience fiction fans discuss nanotech as a topic of casual conversation-6000 attendees -$150/ personscience fictionnanotech is seen as a topic associated with sci fi, though it is also respected by scientists.
1996-08. Carr, J. 9/20/96. Synthetic Pleasure, few Principles. Boston Globe. P. D5 Movie reviewN/A"interesting developments in brain mapping and nanotechnology" (D5)"On the whole, virtual reality and controlled environments are amusingly seen as progressive.." (D5) N/A"…really interesting developments in brain mapping and nanotechnology, giving equal time to characters who have little but narcissism to add to the mosaic" (D5) "If we can't eliminate aging and death, it's not exactly cheering to realize that we may eliminate travel and over sensory experience." (D5)
1996-09. Makeig, J. 10/10/96. Bring on the Glory/ Rice Already Knew Pair Were Special. HC. P 1Robert Curl and Richard Smalley of Rice U., Harvard, AT&T Bell Labs, Stanford and the University of Chicago, Rice chemistry professor Bruce JohnsonN/Ainvention of buckyballs-buckminsterfullerenes = buckyballs -Rice's Center for Nanoscaled Science & Technology is a four-floor, 83,000-sq-ft structurebiomedical engineering, computer technologyRice is using nanoscience as a way to promote school – linking educational leadership with nanoscience
1996-10. Cole, K. 10/10/96. 6 US, British Scientists Win Chemistry, Physics Nobels. LA. P 1Stanford U.'s Douglas Osheroff, Cornell U.'s David Lee, Robert Richardson, UCLA physicist Steve Kivelson, physicist David Goodstein at Caltech, MIT's Mildred DresselhausSmalley and Curl stumbled upon discovery of buckyballsdiscovered third form of carbon, buckyballs (icosahedron shaped sphere of 60 carbon atoms) - there were originally only 2 - graphite and diamond"helium comes in several versions, or isotopes. Helium-4, which has four nuclear particles, was known to be a superfluid. But helium-3, with only three particles in its nucleus, shouldn't have been able to behave in the same way." (1)medicinepotential applications such as drug delivery systems for cancer treatment
1996-11. Byars, C. 10/11/96. Future May Belong to Bucky Tubes. HC. P 31Richard Smalley; Rice University, Robert Curl, Professor Lon Wilson - Rice, Ohio State University, Jason Hafnew-graduate student at Trinity U., Rice U. junior Terry Iversondiscussing findingstrying to use bucky tubes as the tip of the sensor in a special kind of microscope that feels the forces of atoms on a surface in order to build up a picture-bundles of tubes about a millimeter in length -the material is strongest stuff ever made or that can be made -buckyballs are tiny spheres invisible to the naked eye made of 60 carbon atomsbiomedical bucky tubes are replacing buckyballs because they are more useful and practical
1997-01. Nash, Eric. 2/2/97. Is it Going to be a Smaller World, After All? NYT. P. 4.6 Xerox Corporation engineersMEMS are still in the modeling stage."A society's technology always reveals its deepest desires."; "MEMS [micro-electromechanical systems] are all about doing more with less, about being lean, mean and next to invisible." (4.6)None listedsocial stratification, aviation, electronic systems, societal impacts of nanotechnologyNanotechnology may not stratify the culture of the future, but may amalgamate it into something new and unrecognizable.
1997-02. Belluck, P. 2/16/97. A Fine Hour for Squishy Sciences. NYT. P. 14Westinghouse Science Talent SearchScientific awardThe Talent Search is moving from 'hard' sciences like "near-field photolithography and nanotechnology" (14) to social sciencesReport on different awardsphotolithographynanotech is seen as a 'hard' science
1997-03. Crenson, M. 2/16/97. There's Something in the Way that Nothing Behaves. LA. P. 13Steve Lamoreaux, Los Alamos National Laboratory"Lamoreaux incrementally moved a pair of metal plates closer and closer to one another, to distances a hundredth the thickness of a human hair…" (13) - test of the Casimir effect"so-called virtual photons, which spontaneously burst into existence like kernels of popping corn and then disappear almost instantly, ought to push two narrowly separated metal plates together." (13)quantum electrodynamics - describes how particles behave in electromagnetic fieldsquantum electrodynamics"…in the future, nanotechnology will rely on understanding the Casimir force and similar effects." (13)
1997-04. Kanaley, R. 2/20/97. Teeny-Tiny technology/researchers expect big things from little nanomachines they're hoping to build. PI. P. F01 Ralph Merkle, nanotechnologist at Xerox Corp.'s research center in Palo Alto; Richard Smalley, heads Nanotechnology Institute at Rice U; Paul Green, chairman of Nanothinc-nanotech info clearinghouse in San Fransisco; Chris Peterson, executive director of Foresight Institute in Palo Alto; Al Globus, a computational nanotechnologist for NASA; Drexel U. futurist Arthur Shostak, Nadrian Seeman, NYU chemistSeeman uses "small lengths of DNA - the natural genetic material for all life - to make nano-scale geometric structures." (F01)"nanotechnology, whose aim is to build computerized machines - nanomachines - as small as a few atoms that could be put to almost any use." (F01)400 US companies are involved in searching for ways to make money with nanotech, "nanorevenues"engineering, biotechnology, computer science, medicine, environment"solar collectors designed with nanotechnology might mimic photosynthesis to capture the sun's energy so efficiently and economically" (F01) "from self-building and self-mending materials for making skyscrapers or space shuttles, to medical devices that travel through the bloodstream to bulldoze cholesterol from clogged arteries, repair damaged tissue, or reverse the aging process." (F01)
1997-05. Glaser, M. 2/27/97. Obsidian Lives up to the Hype. LA. P. 37Obsidian - computer video gameVideo game reviewPlot - nanotechnology is used to restore the ozone layerPlot - the molecular nanobots disperse through the atmosphere, repairing the damage caused by pollution and fluorocarbonsenvironmentalismThis gives the picture of a future where nanotechnology is used for environmental means to rectify the damage caused by humans.
1997-06. Romenesko, J. 4/28/97. Visionaries Ponder effect of their innovations predictions vary from doom to joy. Miami Herald. P 17BMMIT professor Michael Dertouzos; Robert Seidel, director of Charles Babbage Institute at U of Minnesota; virtual reality guru Jaron Lanier; Bill GatesPredictions about future technologymostly speculation about the future and what we can do with speech-understanding software, nanotechnology, computers, etc. prediction in 1930's said that we would all be flying around in individual mini planes by now, but that obviously did not happencomputers, future, sci-fi, virtual realityin 500 years maybe nanotech will solve the unrealistic dreams of Lanier, whose mind is "overdosed on imagination"
1997-07. Yemma, J. 5/4/97. Plastic Makes perfect. Boston Globe. P. 10 Thomas Russel- University of Massachussetts @ Amherst"..Russell's research is not on the industrial properties of plastics but on the surface qualities of polymers." (10) What he has discovered, along with his colleages, is that things built out of polymers can be fine tuned. As he puts it: "We can change the composition of a surface with the precision of turning a knob." (10)" turns out that you can attach two blocks of polymers that are incompatible and they fight each other like two dogs with their tails tied together…That tension causes the polymers to organize themselves in different patterns when they are heated and laid on a foundation, or substrate." (10) "…polymers are big enough to manipulate without the aid of expensive and cumbersome devices such as electron microscopes." (10)" can fundamentally alter the structure of an object if you can get it small enough. This can give you a new material with valuable new properties- a substance that can alternately absorb and repel water…" (10)
1997-08 Schwartz, J. 6/28/97. Nanotechnology: Great things in tiny packages. Washington Post. P. A02Scientists at the Nanofabrication Facility at Cornell University- Dustin W. Carr, Harold G. CraigheadCarved a guitar out of crystalline silicon by using a fine high-voltage beam of elections to etch patternsUse of electrical chargesCrystalline siliconOne recent creation looks like a paddle suspended at the end of a wire; the researchers send it aflutter with electrical charges and use it to modulate the intensity of a laser beam.Microelectromechanical wonder might one day be used to pass information along fiberoptic lines, in display or sensors, or in other uses yet unimagined.
1997-09. Jul 97 Vol 18 Iss 7. The Lure of the Very Small. Discover. P. 56James Gimzewski, physicist at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory; Nadrian Seeman, chemistGimzewski - built a microscopic abacus by using a scanning-tunneling microscope to push atoms to form grooves for 'buckyballs' to follow; Seeman - "Working with DNA… he has constructed objects so tiny it would take several million of them to stretch across a dime." (56)IBM researchers theorized that a scanning-tunneling microscope tip can be made to "scrape up globs of atoms like a plow and leave behind microscopic furrows." (56); theoretically, the abacus could store "a billion times more information than the memory in a conventional computer can." (56)computers, medicine"If scientists ever do realize their dream of building machines the size of molecules, then someday miniature robots could roam your bloodstream and heal injuries, fight off infections, or deliver medication directly to your liver or heart or other body part in need." (56)
1997-10. Browne, M. 7/29/97. A Guitar the Size of a Cell. NYT. P. C4Dustin Carr, Cornell graduate student; Dr Harold G. Craighead, professor at Cornell University"The nanoguitar… was etched from a solid block of crystalline silicon…" (C.4)Electron-beam lithography "will be used to probe matter on a tiny scale." (C.4)the nanoguitar could be plucked using an atomic force microscope, but the resulting notes would not be within the human-audible frequency rangecommunications, electronics"The system could be adapted for improved communication over optical fibers." (C.4)
1997-11. Flam, F. 8/4/97. Tiny Instrument, big implications. PI. P. D01Dustin Carr, Cornell student/rock musician"drew the guitar on a computer, and it took just a fraction of a second for a machine to etch the layers of the pattern into the silicon chip. The machine uses a technology called electron-beam lithography, in which a beam of electrons works like a tiny etching tool, cutting into the chip. The beam makes a chemical change between the parts of the guitar and the areas surrounding them. Carr then uses a solvent to dissolve the silicon around and under the guitar pattern, leaving small columns of silicon underneath to hold up the guitar." (D01)to rebuild diseased organs, to help bring back cryogenically frozen people, to aid in communication technologyguitar length about 10 micrometers, each string about 50 nanometers - 100 atoms across.communication, medicine, musicmaking tiny guitar is a big breakthrough for nanotech, and broadens the use of applications from nanotech
1997-14. Wolfe, G. 10/5/97. The Urth Man Cometh Where NASA Has Cautiously Explored. CT. P. 18Biographical article on science fiction author Gene WolfeBiographicalNanotechnology will "do everything from building houses to creating fabrics that are a hundred times stronger than today's." (18)nanotechnology - "miniaturized, self-replicating robots working on the molecular level" (18)space explorationNanotechnology will broaden our scientific horizons and make manufacturing more reliable and efficient.
1997-15. Palmer, V. 10/31/97. The Women of the Court; Female Refs in the NBA: It's the Principle of the Thing. LA. P. 8National Basketball AssociationNanotech used as cultural reference point to illustrate intellectual difficultyWith the introduction of female referees, the author says, "Amazing, isn't it, how jobs suddenly attain the complexity of nanotechnology or brain surgery when it's time to open up the ranks?" (8) This is the only mention of nanotechnology in the article.Nanotech as cultural markerN/Aseen as a complex science to be compared at the level of brain surgery
1997-18. 12/3/97. Science presentation is available to schools. Allentown Morning Call. P. B09. Lucent Technologies, National Science Teachers AssociationNo information providedScience Screen Report is an educational system where 30 top schools in country receive video based learning in scienceScience Screen Report has been around for 30 years and has won numerous awardseducation - science, engineering, mathematicsnanotech will be used in the 1997-98 learning series, making nanotech a respectable science that children are expected to know about
1997-20. .Dupree, J. 12/25/97. Researchers aiming to go where no one has gone before/'Star Trek' may be tame compared with nanotechnology. Philadelphia Inquirer. P. F01. Jim Von Her, founder and financial backer of Zyvex; Al Globus, a NASA computer scientist; Rice U. chemist Richard Smalley; Alex Zettl, a physics professor at University of CA@Berkely; Ralph Merkle, a nanotech theorist at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center; Nadrian Seeman, an NYU biochemist"In 1991, researchers figured out how to get buckyballs to hook themselves together into long tubes that look like rolled chicken wire and appropriately are called bukytubes, or nanotubes." (F01) dust sized computers, lightweight spacecrafts, nanobots to be injected and kill cancer cells and unclog arteriesit costs $10,000/lb to launch a payload into orbit; with nanotech, they hope to be able to get that down to $200/lb, making spacecrafts about the cost of a nice Mercedesspace exploration, medical, TV's, computersuse the laws of nature to help drive nanotech research forward "We already have a nanotechnological system that works. We call it life. We can take the same principles that biology has already given us and go beyond that." (F03) - Seeman
1998-01. 2/11/98. Technology Brief-VEECO Instruments Inc.: Pact is Reached to Aquire Maker of Precision Devices. Wall Street Journal.P. 1Veeco Instruments, Inc.Veeco has acquired Digital Instruments Inc.nanotech is becoming commercial and we are actually seeing financial benefits from itthe market for atomic-force microscopy is about $150 mil and will triple within 5 yearsbusiness - financialVeeco predicts that the atomic-force microscopy market will triple in the next five year.
1998-02. Shulman, P. 3/98 Vol 19 Iss 3. The Best of Annals of Improbable Research. Discover. P. 118editors, Annals of Improbable ResearchfancifulA nanotoaster will have many advantages over a macrotoaster, specifically in reducing counter space used, and in the finding of the world's smallest slice of bread.N/Asociety - every day applications (kitchen appliances)This is a satirical look at some of the more bizarre applications of nanotechnology.
1998-03. Fisher, A. 4/98 Vol 252 Iss4 . Tiny Transmission. PS. P. 28Steve Rodgers and Jeff Sniegowsky, Sandia National LaboratoriesNo information provided"Theoretically, the transmission can generate a force capable of moving a 1-pound object" (28)The microtransmission (the size of a grain of sand) can multiply the power of a microengine 3 million times. nuclear weaponrySandia sees such micromachines as significant in serving as near-invisible locks to nuclear devices.
1998-04. Dye, L. 4/6/98. Counsel for Industry, Science's Awkward Relationship. LA. P. 5Michael M. Crow, Columbia University, vice provostNo information – speculationCrow predicts that 30 years from now, nanotechnology, bioelectronics, artificial intelligence, information management, and protecting the environment will be on the forefront of scientific inquiry. N/Abioelectronics, artificial intelligence, information managementCrow sees sciences such as nanotechnology as a future driving force for industry.
1998-05. Hafner, K. 4/9/98. Horse and Blender, Car and Crockpot. NYT. P. G1Neal Stephenson, science fiction writerInterview and profile of SciFi writerNanotech in sci-fictionStephenson's futuristic books occasionally focus on nanotechnology. N/Ananotechnology is still being seen very much in science fiction, and not as a reality
1998-06. 4/21/98. Widely Praised Architect will Design Art Museum. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. P. B2 Antoine Predock-NanoTechnology Center at Rice University, University of California at Santa Cruz Music Facility No information provided"…plan a 50,000 square foot building on the north side of historic Union Station and federal courthouse…" (B2)Predock won the American Institute of Architects' National Honor Awardarchitecturenew building designed for technology
1998-07. Ackerman, T. 4/27/98. A Symposium of Mini Proportions/ Meeting Marks Anniversary of UH Superconductivity Center. HC. P. 13University of Houston, Texas Center for Superconductivity; Carl Wieman, University of ColoradoWeiman achieved the coldest place in existence in the universe by chilling a vial to 492 degrees Fahrenheit below freezing. Nanotechnology has nearly limitless potential, but is still in its early planning stages (where lasers were in the 1960's)In 1990, a nanobot to travel in the bloodstream was briefly under, space exploration, energyNanotechnology may lead to the creation of a limitless power source, super-strong space elevators, or medical nanobots.
1998-08. 5/7/98. Mighty Small/ Science Takes Huge Strides When Great Minds Think Small. HC P. 44University of Houston, Texas Center for SuperconductivityScientists "pondered ways that so-called nanotechnology research can be turned into commercially viable products." (44)Report on symposium N/Amedicine, energyThis symposium focused on discussion of how nanotechnology could be used to create limitless energy sources, and nanobots to police the human body.
1998-09. Piller, C. 6/27/98. The Cutting Edge; Big Picture for Tiny Sensors. LA. P. D1Xerox Corp.'s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)"PARC has assembled a team of computer scientists, physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and robot experts" to work on/with MEMS (D1)Micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) will be able to intelligently solve more mundane, day-to-day problems.Conceptualization of smart paint; "MEMS consist of computer sensors and actuators--moving parts--that range from about 10 microns to about a millimeter in length." (D1); "MEMS differ from nanotechnology…" (D1)home decoration, electronics, automobile industry, military, architecture, computers, surveillanceMEMS provide the possibility of smart cars, smart paint, and other such consumer products. They will also revolutionize engineering and architectural projects, and military machinery (aircraft and surveillance equipment).
1998-10. 7/98 Vol 19 Iss 7. Beams of Stuff. Discover. P. 76Wolfgang Ketterle, MIT physicist; Michael Heller, NanogenKetterle cooled sodium atoms with lasers and magnetics, merged a bunch of atoms into a meta-wave, and generated two separate metawaves in order to take a photograph.; Heller "used synthetic DNA as a molecular support structure to hold light responsive molecules called chromophores..." (76)Ketterle's 'atom laser' "might someday be used to build microscopic mechanical structures atom by atom" (76); Heller's DNA work will be a stepping-stone for self-assembly nanotech workHeller's DNA work is being done to increase the storage capacity of CDs. electronicsKetterle's work lays the foundation for the tool necessary to begin building any nanotechnology. Heller's DNA work provides the basis for self-assembly necessary for creating nanotech computers and other nano devices.
1998-13 Reucroft, S. 7/20/98. Ancient Rocks Artificial. Boston Globe. P. C5 University of California at Berkeley, Alex Zettl"..made a similar ball out of only 36 carbon atoms" (C5)"…seems to have novel electrical properties that could lead to new electronic devices.." (C5)"…superconductor at record-high temperatures." (C5)"The new molecule, like its larger relatives made of 60, 74, and 80 carbon atoms, seems to have novel electrical properties.." (C5) "…the private sector for cutting-edge research and teaching in such high-tech areas as computer graphics, animation and multimedia; advanced forestry technology; and nanotechnology." (C5)
1998-16. Hotz, R. 9/10/98. Science File: An Exploration of Issues and Trends Affecting Science. LA. P. 2Marvin Cohen, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Philip J. Keukes, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories; James R. Heath, UCLACurrently, "scientists wielding electron beams like arc welders have built experimental structures thousands of times smaller than a human hair…" but lack the precision to create perfect nanomachines. (2); an experimental computer, Teramac, was built with flawed nanotechnology, but is 'smart' enough to "steer around any defect" (2) and is still 100 times faster than a normal PC"They [nanotube computer circuits] would be a hundred times stronger than steel, as fast as a conventional supercomputer and, best of all, would assemble themselves." (2)Some percentage of molecules constructed by self-assembly will always be defective; nanotubes form from a mist of heated carbon vaporcomputingThe idea of nanotech computers 'fixing' themselves subverts the currently impossible task of building perfect nanotubes and nanochains. This means that nanotech supercomputers are closer to being realized than previously thought.
1998-17. Feeley, G. 10/4/98. Science Fiction and Fantasy. WP. P. X11Wil McCarthy, novelist, "Bloom"Book review - N/AReview of fictional book"The 'bloom' of the title is a berserk 'technogenic' virus, a piece of runaway nanotechnology that consumes virtually everything it touches." (X.11)science fiction – and predicted social implications of nanotechnologyThere is a nanotechnological warning, giving a highly fictionalized image of the dangerous path that nanotechnology could lead humanity down.
1998-18. Ackerman, T. 10/27/98. Rice, NASA Team Up to Explore the Uses of Ultrasmall Technology. HC. P. 32Rice University (President Malcolm Gillis); NASA (Administrator Dan Goldin)No information provided"nanotechnology will fuel a revolution that will at once lower space costs and make space flight safer, help put a man on Mars and allow NASA to detect any existence of life within 600 trillion miles of Earth." (32)nanotechnology - involves the manufacturing of one-billionth of a meter-scale materials and structures; practitioners move atoms one by one; buckytubes - "rolled-up concentric sheets of buckyballs are 30 to 100 times stronger than steel but about a billionth of a meter in diameter..." (32)space exploration; power storage; electronics (semi-conductors)Nanotechnology will "open up the space frontier and the American economy." (32)
1998-20. Dye, L. 11/9/98. The Cutting Edge: Preparing Tiny Nanotubes for Big Role in TV. LA. P. 1Zhifeng Ren, University of Buffalo; Alex Zettl, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory"Nanotubes…are created by heating ordinary carbon until it vaporizes, then allowing it to condense in a vacuum or an inert gas." (1); Ren used ammonia as the inert gas, allowing the tubes to be formed below the melting temperature of glass. By coating the glass with varying thicknesses of nickel, Ren can control the diameter of the nanotubes.If nanotubes that are perfectly aligned can be grown, their potential for use will increase, especially in electronics such as flat panel televisions.nanotubes - "100 times stronger than steel, can conduct electricity without releasing heat and flawlessly transmit optical signals" (1); Zettl - "carbon nanotubes, depending on the diameter, can conduct an electrical current as if it were a metal…" (1)electronics, communications"Nanotubes of varying thickness could be used for everything from extremely strong cables to electrical or optical transmission devices." (1); nanotubes might eventually replace silicon
1999-01. Flinn, E. 1/99 Vol 254 Iss 1. Want Hackers Out? Lock the Door. PS. P. 42Frank Peter, Sandia National LaboratoriesPeter and his team developed a Recordable Locking Device using MEMS technology. It consists of gears that unlock only when the right code is given. Theoretically, this device should be about 100 times more effective than a computer firewall.The device is about the size of a dress-shirt securityA practical application for MEMS technology. It is being used to enhance computers, rather than create computers (despite predictions for future nanotech).
1999-02. Einstein, D. 1/4/99. Sci-Fi Writers May Have Envisioned Future of Technology. SFC. P. B1William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, and Greg Bear (sci-fi novelists)No information provided – science fiction review"In the not-too-distant future, nanotech could be used to repair a blocked artery or a damaged kidney without surgery." (B.1)Nanotechnology is the hallmark of many recent science fiction novelsmedicine, manufacturing, weaponryAgain, even in fiction nanotechnology's focus is on maintaining the human body, and quickly constructing anything from chairs to buildings.
1999 - 03. Einstein, David. 1/4/99.Stranger than Fiction. The San Fransisco Chronicle. P. B1.Science Fiction writers, such as Isaac Asimov and David BrinScience fiction writers are predicting the future of technology in their novels.Science fiction writers are captivated with the miraculous things nanotechnology can do.using nanotechnology: -Greg Bear wrote about self forming weapons -William Gibson wrote about making buildings -Neal Stephenson wrote about entire communities being created What was once science fiction, nanotechnology is now, or soon will be making possibleBiomedical - nanotech in near future will be able to repair a kidney without intrusive surgery Sci-fi has accurately predicted the future in many technological fields, such as the internet, and if they predict entire residential areas being created with nanotechnology, chances are, it is possible or will be within the near future.
1999-04. Callahan, R. 1/15/99. Scientists make 'machine' out of DNA. Miami Herald. P. 7ANadrian Seeman, lead researcher; Daniel Colbert of Rice U's Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology"The device was made by joining two double-stranded DNA spirals with a bridge of DNA. When it's exposed to a particular chemical solution, part of the structure bends.""Scientists have made a moving part out of a few strands of DNA, a step toward building incredibly tiny 'machines' that could someday perform intricate jobs like building computer circuits and clearing clogged blood vessels in the brain." (7A)"The DNA device, however, is particularly rigid and executes motions 10 times bigger." (7A)computers, medical"However…scientists are still decades away from creating any useful machines in nanotechnology" (7A)
1999-05. Kanaley, R. 1/25/99. A merging of mind and microchip is forecast. PI. P. C01Ray Kurzweil, sci fi authorPredictionsKurzweil speculates about the future, saying that AI will change the world so that the line between humans and computers is blurred with the help of: "By 2019… nanotechnology will permit the production of transistors just a few atoms wide." (C01)-Moore's law says that computing power doubles every 18 months -Kurzweil made first print to speech machine in 1976 -Kurzweil says that computers doubled every three years in the beginning of the century but now they double every one year.AI, computers, some negative implications"threat of 'self-replicating nanobots'" (C01)
1999-06. 1/31/99. 7 L.I. Students Reach Intel Competition Finals. NYT. P. 14.LI.4Alex Wissner-Gross, Great Neck South High School seniorReport on winners of science awardsNanotechnology aligned with prizes and awardsWissner-Gross' entry for the Intel Science Talent Search is based on nanotechnology research.Prizes and awardsEmerging respect and legitmacy
1999-07. 2/8/99. Science Notebook. WP. P. A09Chad A. Mirkin and colleagues, Northwestern UniversityMirkin has turned a common 'bug' in the atomic force microscope into a feature, "harnessing the flow of water molecules between tip and substrate to pass the chemical 'ink' through a super-tiny capillary channel to the surface." (A.09)"The research could have practical implications for nanotechnology… both in testing nanotech concepts and in creating linkages between the nano-sized objects and more conventional microscopic equipment." (A.09)This discovery is described as "'a miniaturation of a 4,000-year-old technology, the dip pen.'" (A.09)nanotechnology methods As mentioned, this process could help further nanotech processes.
1999-08. Ermann, L. 2/14/99. They Have Jobs on the Slide: Microscopic Art; Miniaturists Can Conceive Intricate Worlds on the Head of a Pin. WP. P. G.02Edward T. Meyer, VP for publishing at Ripley's Believe It or Not!Nanotechnology as artwork – moving into new areas"Nanotechnology can produce just about anything on a microscopic scale" (G.02)N/AartNanotechnology, here, is regarded as an artificial way to mimic obscure art forms such as rice-grain painting and miniature carvings.
1999-09. Novak, L. 2/14/99. Bizarre Interviews Illegal Question of the Week: 'You Live at Home: Are You a Momma's Boy?' CT. P. 5Background and expertise in nanotech is cited as reason for authorityNanotech as cultural phenomenonNo data citedIn this question-answer column, it is mentioned that one of the questioners is a chemical engineer with Ph.D. work in molecular nanotechnology.N/ANanotech as cultural phenomenon – concept is “stand in” for expertise and authority
1999 - 10. Kurzweil, Ray. 3/1/99. When machines think. Maclean's. P. 54.Ted Berger - Hedco Neurosciences in LA, Carver Mead - MIT in Boston, Gordon Moore - an inventor of integrated circuitsMoore's Law "One approach to designing intelligent computers will be to copy the human brain, so these machines will seem very human." (54) "One approach is to scan a living brain." (54)"…have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital - analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits." (54)"Once a computer achieves a level of intelligence comparable to human intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it." (54)"A new pattern of exponential growth will take over from Moore's law, just as Moore's Law took over from discrete transistors, and vacuum tubes before that." (54)"The next 20 years will see far more change than the previous hundred." (54) (referring to technology changes) – nanotech as essential to progress in computer technology
1999-11. Burghardt, L. 3/14/99. 2 Island Students In Intel Top 10. NYT. P. 14LI.6Alex Wissner-Gross, Great Neck South High School senior"He [Wissner-Gross] studied ionized molecules called fullerenes or 'buckyballs' in a granular medium in order to create tiny computer microchips that are one-billionth of a meter in size." (14LI.6)to create tiny computer microchipsNanotech associated with prizes and awardscomputersmaking computers smaller and faster
1999-13. Sterling, B. 3/29/99. A Century of Science Fiction. TIME. P. 200Science Fiction N/A - overview of sci-fi writing"SF's saga of the techno-sublime is about power, speed and transcendence of human limit. Ray guns, starships, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, nanotechnology-all beloved of SF, and every last one of them a big Technicolor disruption of the mundane." (200)Review of science fiction treatments of nanotechN/ABy positioning nanotechnology within the context of science fiction writing, it gives the impression that it is a romanticized technology, which may turn out to be more interesting in fiction than in reality.
1999-18. Wheeler, M. 7/99 Vol 20 Iss 7. Looking Back at the Future: Ten Years of Discover Awards. Discover. P. 110Michael Heller, Nanogen Corporation"Heller built synthetic DNA containing chromophores, molecules that glow when a laser shines on them." (110)Since the practical limit to CD-ROM data is related to the size of the laser used to etch the digital bits, only a smaller dot, such as one made by DNA will be able to push storage capacity to the limit."Chromophores respond to specific frequencies of laser, so many different dots could be packed into a single spot and be read individually by separate laser flashes." (110)electronicsThis is an example of using nanotechnological means to advance current technologies.
1999-20. Browne, M. 7/5/99. Scientists See Time Chiping Away at Technology. HC. P. 10Dr. David Anthony Muller, Lucent Technologies"The Lucent group discovered by experiment that the insulating silicon dioxide layers in a chip can block a flow of current only if they are thicker than about five silicon atoms deep; if less than this, current leaks through the insulating layer and the chip is rendered useless." (10)"…at the present pace of chip improvement, technologists will hit a barrier in the year 2012, beyond which further progress with silicon-based chips may not be possible." (10)Presently the best silicon dioxide insulators are 25 silicon atoms thick.computers, electronicsHere is the idea that nanotechnology will not bring the revolution in electronics that everyone expects, but instead will fall prey to Nature, with the realization that there is a practical limit to how small things can be made, and the atomic level is beyond our reach.
1999 - 30. Torvik, Solveig. 8/8/99. Is nothing sacred in dog days of August? Seattle Post-Intelligencer. P. G2Solveig Torvik - opinion columnist for the Seattle Post-Intelligencerobservance, reading current news - examplesTorvik writes that tradition is a comforting thing, and that in a time where nanotechnology presents the idea of powerful invisible beings running our lives, we should cling to tradition.-England recently banned fox hunting, a tradition tourists appreciate as being "Europe-esque" -Women in the U.S. are having their rights taken away by being kicked out of public areas for breastfeeding, again stepping away from traditionSocial implications / aspects of nanotechnologyThe author of this article uses nanotechnology as a step away from comfortable tradition, and a big bad scary new idea that soon we will be controlled by invisible nano-bots controlling our bodies.
1999-31. Nicholson, L. 8/12/99. A Speck of Dust that could be the size of the computer of tomorrow. Philadelphia Inquirer. P. F01HP; UCLA; DARPA- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; UCLA professor Fraser Stoddart; Meyya Meyyapan- team manager for NASA's research centercreating a logic gate using synthetic molecules: "They took two perpendicular metal wires that were a few millionths of a meter thick, and at the point where the wires crossed, placed a single layer of synthetic molecules called redox-active rotaxanes. When they applied electricity, the molecules switched, changing in shape and in electrical conductivity." (F01)"A single molecule switch only takes one electron to open or close. It is possible…for a molecular computer to perform a quintillion...operations per second on a single watt of power." (F01) logic gates: a basic element of computerscomputerspotential applications: clothing paint, micro-bot swarms, image data processing, war-gaming simulations
1999-32. Hilkevitch, J. 8/29/99. Lose Weight, The NASA Way Students Gravitate to Houston For A Little Zero-G Action. CT. P. 10Scott MacLaren, technical advisorClass trip to NASA HoustonN/AOne of the advisors for a team of students involved in NASA's college science competition is an expert in molecular nanotechnology.Societal issues – education of STEM disciplinesIf young people have qualified mentors with interests in nanotechnology, it is more likely that in the future we will have a good base of individuals working in the nanotech fields.
1999-35. Riordon, J. 10/99 Vol 255 Iss 4. Tiny Tweezers. PS. P. 35Chris Keller, MEMS Precision InstrumentsNone detailedKeller plans to market micro elecromechanical tweezers, designed to manipulate objects between 1 and 11 microns, within a year"techniques borrowed from computer chip manufacturing have been used to build a variety of tiny machines with levers, gears, and springs measured in tens of microns." (35); the tweezers are MEMS devices mounted on computerized actuatorsmedicine, nanotechnologyThe MEMS are a first step to begin building actual nanotech machines. There is also mention of a medical use of the tweezers, namely to operate on tiny surfaces such as retinas or embryos.
1999-36. Sinha, G. 10/99 Vol 255 Iss 4. Tiny Test Tubes. PS. P. 36scientists at Stanford University"Researchers build the vesicles by placing an artificial membrane on top of the chemical they want to study, which is dissolved in a liquid such as alcohol. Lowering the air pressure above the membrane causes the alcohol to evaporate, forming bubbles in the membrane that trap the target chemical." (36)Nano as methodology in chemical and medical applicationsScientists have been able to study the inner portions of cells using manmade miniature containers called vesicles.medicineHere is a practical use of a tiny nano or MEM structure.
1999 - 37. Gillmor, Dan. 10/15/99. San Jose Mercury News. No pageK. Eric Drexler-chairman of Foresight Institute, Physicist Richard Feynman, Ralph C. Merkle at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center"…proposed building matter molecule by molecule, or even atom by atom."Nanotechnology is moving squarely into the head of plain old science.Nanotechnology…will surely revolutionize materials science and could effectively redefine much of our environment, if not our lives."…the conversations will also inevitably move into metaphysical planes as well because molecular engineering raises massive legal, economic, ethical and even moral questions.""When we can manipulate individual molecules, even atoms, we can create new (or at least better) materials. But we will also be able to create the tiniest machines that could do all kinds of things we can't even consider today, and some of those tiny nano-machines will create more versions of themselves in preparation for building something bigger."
1999-38. Gingrich, N. 10/18/99. We Must Fund The Scientific Revolution. WP. P. A.19Newt GingrichProposes awards for nanotech to inspire new research"nanotechnology… will have as big an impact on our lives as transistors and chips did in the past 40 years." (A.19)No specific data reportedautomotive, defense, public safety, medicineThis is a call for funding. Nanoscience is a groundbreaking new field whose potential can only be tapped with adequate monies.
1999-39. Hamilton, D. 10/21/99. Venerable H-P Labs to Drop Its 'Aw, Shucks' Attitude. WSJ. P. B6Dick Lampman, director of Hewlett-Packard Co. LabsHP Labs demonstrated the ability to create circuit elements (logic gates) on a molecular scale."…'chemically assembled electronic nanocomputers' could extend the computer industry's ability to keep building faster, cheaper and smaller computers for decades" (B.6)HP Labs is credited with creating the first pocket calculator, the first programmable calculator, and significant printer technologiescomputersNanotechnology is again seen as a sustaining tool for the computer industry.
1999-40. Markoff, J. 11/1/99. Computer Scientists are Poised for Revolution on a Tiny Scale. NYT. P. C1Researchers at Hewlett-Packard and the University of California at Los Angeles; researchers at Yale and Rice UniversitiesThe HP-UCLA teams "successfully fashioned rudimentary electronic logic gates… that were the thickness of a single molecule." (C.1); Yale-Rice teams created similar switches that can be repeatedly opened and shut"If molecular memory devices could be constructed, they might offer vast storage capabilities for just pennies in cost." (C.1); "…if such systems are to be assembled into workable computers, it will require radically new architectures alien to today's semiconductor-based computers." (C.1)The Clinton administration is considering a National Nanotechnology Initiativeelectronics, economics (nanotech as a disruptive technology), military defenseWhile the focus here is ultrafast, fault tolerant computers, researchers are conscious of the disruptive effect nanotechnology will have on the semiconductor industry as well as other electronics markets. As such, it is touted as a potentially dangerous blessing.
1999 - 43. Perlman, David. 11/6/99. Berkeley's Health Sciences Initiative; $500 million plan to build labs, fund research in disease prevention. The San Francisco Chronicle. P. A18. University of California at Berkeley Chancellor Rabert M. Berdahl; $500 million in funding from state and federal grant programs, private donationsNone – profile of UC Berkeley investment in nano centerThere will be two new research centers, new faculty and new equipment, in hopes of aiding disease prevention, diagnosis and treatmentN/ABioengineeringNanotechnology is now being used to help in research of diseases, as a state-of-the-art research tool.
1999-48. Holt, J. 11/10/99. This is really Something. WSJ. P. A20Richard FeynmanNone- biographical information about Richard Feynman presented in a story about cultural use of science and the numerical value of zeroFeynman presented as intellectual and theorist who conceptualized new ways of thinking about zero. Credited with theorizing quantum eletrodynamics.Feyman's "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" talk detailed ways of building microscopic computers and factories, and "helped launch today's nanotechnology revolution." (A.20)Cultural and historical relevance of mathematics and science. Challenger disaster. Nano's larger influence on social culture – early theorists have provided important contributions to culture, history, society.
1999-49. Gugliotta, G. 11/13/99. Big Expectations for Micromachines; Uses Now Include Air Bags, Ink Jets. WP. P. A01Samuel L. Miller, Sandia National Laboratories supervisor of advanced concepts; Paul McWhorter, Sandia National Laboratories deputy director for microsystemsTo make micromachines, "layers of silicon are photo-engraved with the micromachine's design, then etched with acid to free the moving parts." (A.01)Micromachines have the potential to "inspire radical change in almost any aspect of human endeavor" in the near future. (A.01)There are about 600 labs doing microtechnology research worldwide; $4 to $6 billion worth of microdevices were sold in 1998communications, automotive industry, weapons/defenseMicrodevices, like nanotechnologies, have the potential to revolutionize nearly every aspect of human life. The difference is, microdevices are poised to do so in practical ways much more quickly than nanotech.
1999 - 50. 11/16/99. Sound Bites; Quotes from the Bay Area 2020 Symposium. The San Fransisco Chronicle. P. D6Stan Williams- leads Basic Research Program at Hewlett-Packard Labs in Paulo Alto and Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn- Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at University of California at San Francisco No research method specified--simply, Williams "is working to make computers faster and smaller" and Blackburn "co-discovered telomarase"Blackburn created an enzyme to prolong cell life and help fight off cancer and a molecular microchip to monitor chromosome health and cell health. Williams' goal was to make computers faster, smaller and more powerful."-revealed first computer switch for chemically assembled electronic nanocomputers (CAENs) -discovered enzyme to help fight cancer"Artificial Intelligence - someday computers will become our friends/foes.The smaller and more powerful computers become, the more they will be used in everyday life, such as our clothing, appliances, and even jewelry. Pretty soon molecular microchips will replace the much larger silicon-based ones.
1999 - 51. Hall, Carl T. 11/16/99. Speed is of the Essence; Information, biomedicine and miniaturization are advancing at an ever-increasing pace. The San Fransisco Chronicle. P. D10.Stan Williams- head of basic research at HP in Paulo AltoWilliams has already constructed molecular computer switch, now trying to make these into a computer. The idea is to develop software that will help to create circuits. He is combining information science with nanotechnology to make the internet more powerful. Imaging methods make it possible to view the molecular design and layout what they need to make computers and the internet much faster and more powerful"-use molecular nanotechnology to replace silicon (could lead to wearable computers) -made molecular computer switch"Biomedical - drug creation, Human Genome Project-Tiny invisible computers in clothes, paint, cars -Internet to gather information and make decisions for us -Shorter job spans (computers taking over human's jobs) -Computers growing at exponential rate
1999-57. Aeppel, T. 12/31/99. Industry and Economics-Think Small: Imagine Changing a Chair into a Table at the Flick of a Switch; Welcome to Nanotechnology. The Wall Street Journal.P. R40K. Eric Drexler; Harold Craighead, Cornell University professor, head of the Nanobiotechnology Center; T. Ross Kelly, Boston College professorKelly - tried, and succeeded, to make a chemically powered, molecular motor"There are serious scientists and engineers suggesting that through nanotechnology, we could eventually… build them [our much-desired little things] from the ground up, one atom at a time." (R.40); "…you'd create factories at the molecular level able to churn out virtually any product desired from materials ubiquitous in the atmosphere" (R.40)Unlike everyday objects, nanoscale matter is dynamic (can be changed after construction); obstacles in power and control still hinder nanotechnology; Kelly - his motor is 78 atoms large, and fully functional, although not currently usefulcomputers, warfare, consumer electronics, materials manufacturingNanotechnology may make it possible to build objects that can instantly turn into other objects with the flip of a switch; also, this technology brings the potential for atomically perfect, terrible weaponry; full-scale nanotechnology perfection will likely bring about an economic shift as labor and manufacturing no longer become human jobs
2000-01. Slovick, M. 1/00 Vol 256 Iss 1. Tiniest Web server. PS. P. 38Hariharasubrahmanian Shrikumar, University of Massachusetts."iPic uses a tiny 4-megahertz microcontroller, a 32-kilobyte memory chip that stores Web pages, and a power-supply regulator." (38); the iPics will be embedded in electronic devices so a PC can communicate with it themShrikumar's computer "may soon let our Internet Web browser control almost any AC-powered electronic product inside and around your house." (38); the iPic is believed to be the smallest computer ever built; it costs less then $1; the Web server serves 7,200 hits/hrelectronics, computersThis is an important step for nanotechnology since not only is the iPic a practical use item, but is also cheap to produce.
2000-02. Marston, W. 1/00 Vol 21 Iss 1. Wonder Wear. Discover. P. 46Tyrone Vigo, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Tom Lister, president of Wisconsin Global Technologies; HaloSource; Acordis Acrylic Fibers; David Forrest, president of the Institute for Molecular ManufacturingTextiles are being modified with Teflon to make the fibers stain-resistant; Vigo's polymer (polyethylene glycol) coils and uncoils to release or retain heat and moisture; HaloSource is incorporating N-halamines to fabrics to attract chlorine molecules and kill germs"Tomorrow, embarrassing-and expensive-clothing disasters will be history, because textile designers are teaming up with materials scientists to develop fabrics that remain fresh and wearable regardless of what you spill on them." (46); Vigo created a polymer called polyethylene glycol to regulate temperature; it is "'Nontoxic, antimicrobial, eliminates all odor-causing microbes, antistatic, antiwrinkle, and there's no shrinkage.'" (Lister, 46)textiles, medicineNanotechnology will only serve to enhance these textile processes, allowing for rip-repairing, shape-changing, self-laundering clothing and fabrics.
2000-03. 1/1/00. The thinkers: minds that matter. Maclean's. P. 78Peter Willis, physical chemist, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University"he [Willis] is doing postdoctoral research with Nobel laureate chemist and physicist Richard Smalley on the production of material made from molecules known as pure carbon fullerene tubes." (78)"'Nanotechnology is the science of the future… It will change all of our lives in the next 20 to 40 years.'" (78)Pure carbon fullerene tubes cost $1,500 to produce per grammaterials manufacturingNanoscience will change our lives in the future, but this article conveys the general uncertainty of how by omitting specifics.
2000-04. 1/1/00. Readers see a future of peace, health and moonbase tourists. ATU. P. 30Kay Kelly Future speculation"Nanotechnology… will transform the world economy; things will be inexpensive and durable. Medical offshoots of nanotech will make immortality a practical goal." (30)None listedmedicine, consumerism, materials manufacturingAgain, the uses of nanotechnology most stressed are medical advances and materials manufacturing that will lead to revolutionized consumer products
2000-05. Tolson, M. 1/1/00. Y2K or not…we made it/Looking Ahead: The wonders of the future are upon us. HC. P. 1Mike Tolson, article author Future speculation"Nanotechnology… will produce devices that reproduce the actions of full-sized counterparts. That means it is completely reasonable to anticipate the injection of millions of nanorobots into the human bloodstream" (1)None listedmedicineNanobots patrolling the bloodstream is one of the most recurring themes in the discourse of nanotechnological goals. Here, nanotech is hailed as perhaps the greatest technological achievement that will come out of the 21st century.
2000-06. Boraks, D. 1/2/00. Innovation: To infinity and Beyond. CO. P. 14XDavid Boraks, article authorFuture speculation"Using nanotechnology, tiny nanobots weighing a few grams could send 100 million eyes and ears to the surface of Mars." (14X)None listedspace explorationNanotechnology would bring an unprecedented degree of fault tolerance to the space program. As the article mentions, even if half of the nanobots sent fail, there would still be 50 million functioning recorders.
2000-07. Howe, Peter. 1/21/00. MIT, Miami Firm in $90M Optical Networking Venture. BG. P. C3G. Robert Tatum, president of Nanovation Inc.; Lionel C. Kimerling, MIT Materials Processing Center directorNanovation "is committing $90 million to create a new research center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology." (C.3)The center "is expected to supercharge local efforts in what is called optical networking." (C.3); "'Microphotonics is the next revolutionary technology'" (Kimerling, C.3)microphotonic/nanophotonic devices - devices and circuits, "which can carry hundreds of times more data at much higher speeds over connections a hundredth or a thousandth the size of a metal wire." (C.3)Communication, computer, electronic devicesSuch a practical use of nanotechnology that is cost-effective and beneficial to a large community will make a favorable example for when nanotechnology research is questioned in the future.
2000-08. Ackerman, T. 1/22/00. Rice University Chemis Sees Big Promise in 'Nano' Initiative. HC. P. 2Rick Smalley, Rice University nobelistThe initiative "will make the funding climate so rich the school [Rice] will become more aggressive in pursuing projects such as its bid to create objects at once thinner than a human hair and 100 times stronger than steel." (2)Smalley said, "President Clinton's proposed nanotechnology initiative should embolden Rice researchers to push forward with more ambitious programs." (2)"Rice was the nation's first university to adopt nanotechnology as a key strategic area for investment." (2)nanotechnology researchMore nanotechnology funding will mean more prestigious universities will begin research programs, and nanoscience will be further legitimized.
2000-09. Fleck, John. 1/22/00. Sandia may get more funds for research. Albuquerque Journal. P. E1Sandia National Laboratories, President Clinton, National Institutes of Health and National Science FoundationIncrease in the budget for Department of Energy Increase in the budget will increase the money for the researchBudget increase for the nanotechnology researchBroad scientific funding initiative by President Clinton. New money could expand the lab's research in nanotechnology.
2000 - 10. Sanchez, Rene. 1/22/00. Clinton Proposes more spending for research; Nearly $3 billion in Extra Funding planned for science, technology. Washington Post. P. A02President Clinton; Rita Colwell - director of the National Science FoundationA speech on why the budget should be increased for the fields of science and technologyPresident Clinton's wish to make a final contribution before the electionsThe benefits brought by the technologyThe research is in extending life expectancy, making computers smaller and faster, and improving air quality. the possibilities are enormous - materials with 10 times the strength of steel and only a small fraction of the weight, shrinking all the information housed at the Library of Congress into a device the size of a sugar cube, detecting cancerous tumors when they are only a few cells in size.
2000-11. 1/22/00. Clinton Proposes Boost in Technology Funding. HC. P. 2President Clinton"The spending proposal… seeks a $497 million 'National Nanotechnology Initiative' that would finance research into the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules." (2)"nanotechnology research could lead to breakthroughs such as 'molecular computers' that could store the contents of the Library of Congress in a device the size of a sugar cube or produce new materials as strong as steel but 10 times lighter." (2)President Clinton "proposed a $2.8 billion rise in research funding, providing money to study everything from the way molecules move to networks for high-speed wireless communications." (2)communication, computers, materials manufacturingPresidential backing of nanotechnology research will help to make it a more accepted and prominent research area.
2000-12. Saunders, F. 2/00 Vol 21 Iss 2. Molecule Mover and Shaker. Discover. P. 14James Gimzewski, IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory"By manipulating a tiny, electrically charged stylus, Gimzewski has built an abacus of carbon molecules one ten-millionth of an inch wide." (14)Nanotech devices "are the first steps toward a new kind of micro-industry, constructed molecule by molecule." (14)Gimzewski is working on another machine powered by the heat surrounding itmedicine, computers, communication, farmingGimzewski offers chemicals as the solution to the nanobot energy problem. If the appropriate chemicals could be manufactured or discovered, then mass-producing self-sustaining nanobots would no longer be a problem.
2000-13. Boyd, R. 2/3/00. Atom-sized gadgets are ahead. Charlotte Observer. P. 2AWhite House Office of Science and Technology Policy; Horst Stormer, Lucent Technologies; Robert Mehalso, Renselaer Polytechnic Institute; Richard Smalley, Rice University"Lucent Technologies is developing 100-nanometer chips." (2A)"'Nanotechnology will lead to the next industrial revolution'"; "'Nanotechnology has the potential to change the nature of almost every human-made object.'" (WHOSTP, 2A)"'Nanotechnology has given us the tools to play with the ultimate toy box of nature - atoms and molecules.'" (Stormer, 2A)aviation, construction, computers, energyWhile nanotechnology may indeed have the potential to revolutionize all human industries, whether or not it will be feasible to do so remains to be seen.
2000-14. Westphal, S. 2/3/00. Remaking the World One Atom at a Time; Nanotechnology, Manipulating Materials on a Molecular Scale. LA. P. B2IBM physicists; Eugene Wong, assistant director of Engineering for the National Science Foundation; Tom Schneider, National Cancer Institute; Interagency Working Group; Richard Smalley, Rice UniversityMedicine - "So-called smart devices made of drugs coated in layers of nanoparticles could travel to sites in the body to cure localized cancers or lesions. Prosthetic limbs and artificial organs may be coated with nanoparticles to prevent immune reactions against the implants."; Environmental Science - "nanomembranes that will filter contaminants or remove pollutants, or will be able to detect and detoxify contamination with chemical and biological agents." (B.2)"if humans could tell atoms how to arrange themselves and how to behave, many of the properties of a material could be controlled at will." (B.2); "'We'll be able to build anything in the future.'" (Schneider, B.2)"New kinds of microscopes and powerful computer simulation programs developed in the past 10 years have revolutionized nanotechnology." (B.2)construction, information technology, medicine, environmental science, the automotive industry, energy, national security"Leading scientists who met last year at the National Science Foundation said nanotechnology will have a major impact on health, wealth, and security of the world's people and will be at least as significant as antibiotics" (B.2)
2000-15. Piller, C. 2/3/00. A Glimpse of Atomic Scale Computing. LA. P. A1Donald Eigler and IBM physicists; Paul Saffo, director of the Institute for the Future"The scientists demonstrated an atomic-scale circuit by building on a sheet of copper an elliptical ring of pointy cobalt atoms… When they placed an additional cobalt atom inside the ellipse, it transmitted a 'mirage' or faint duplicate, of that atom's electrical state to appear at a second point within the ring." (A.1)"nanotechnology will ultimately pack the power of a supercomputer into a device so small that they could be woven into garments powered by body heat, or injected into a person's bloodstream as super-intelligent diagnostic probes." (A.1)IBM's 'quantum mirage' research "demonstrates that information can travel through solid substances without the benefit of wires." (A.1)computersThis proves that atomic-scale circuits can be built, but not yet in a cost-effective manner.
2000-16. Walker, M. 2/4/00. The Kids' Reading Room; Reading by 9; News Challenge. LA. P. E8Los Angeles TimesContext is a quiz on weekly news events for children. Nano is basis of a question: “In the future, devices may be built from the bottom up, molecule by molecule, through something called nanotechnology. Nano is a prefix used in science to mean: a thousandth of, a billionth of, a trillionth of.” A=a billionth of. "In the future, devices may be built from the bottom up, molecule by molecule, through something called nanotechnology." (E.8)"'Nano' is a prefix used in science to mean: 'a billionth of'" (E.8)Molecular manufacturing. Nano as cultural icon. Nano used in children's quiz shows how it has become part of general knowledge and cultural/scientific awareness.
2000-17. Boyd, R. 2/7/00. Researchers tout tiny tech as the next big thing atom manipulation could change world. DFP. P. 4AWhite House Office of Science and Technology Policy; Horst Stormer, Lucent Technologies; William Warren, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Richard Truly, director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory"Lucent Technologies is developing a 100-nanometer chip." (4A)"'Nanotechnology will lead to the next industrial revolution'" (WHOSTP, 4A); "'The possibilities to create new things appear limitless'" (Stormer, 4A)"'Nanotechnology has given us the tools to play with the ultimate toy box of nature - atoms and molecules.'" (Stormer, 4A)national security, computers, energyNanotechnology has the potential to change all aspects of our lives through smaller, stronger, faster, more efficient products barely imaginable today.
2000-18. Quinlan, T. 2/14/00. IBM's Atomic 'Mirage' Could Revolutionize Computng Quantum Waves Could Move Data Without Using Wires. CT. P. 2Donald M. Eigler, Hari C. Manoharan, Christopher P. Lutz, and other scientists at IBM's Almaden Research CenterScientists "created a process that uses quantum waves to transfer information from one part of a 'nanoprocessor' to another without relying on any physical connection." (2)If IBM can make the quantum mirage process economically worthwhile, "it could lead to generations of ultra-small processors perhaps billions of times more powerful than today's fastest microprocessors." (2)Right now, Moore's Law holds true, but the pace cannot continue beyond 15 years.computersThis process proves some nanotechnology theory, but is nothing more than an "interesting lab experiment" (2) at this point.
2000-19. Boyd, R. 2/29/00. Tiny Technology big future. MH. P. 1EWhite House Office of Science and Technology Policy; Horst Stormer, physicist; William Warren, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Alton Clark, Cornell University; Lucent Technologies"Lucent Technologies is developing 100-nanometer chips." (1E); Clark "uses a beam of electrons to write 20-nanometer patterns on a computer chip." (1E)"'The possibilities to create new things appears limitless'" (Stormer, 1E); "The full impact of nanotechnology will be greater than computer chips because it applies to many more fields than electronics" (1E)"Because of the difficulty and cost, most commercial nanoproducts are at least 10 years away" (1E)aviation, construction, computers, energyNanotechnology has the potential to change all aspects of our lives through smaller, stronger, faster, more efficient products barely imaginable today.
2000-20. Wright, K. 3/00 Vol 21 Iss 3. Keepers of Words. Discover. P. 37Deb Burns, Merriam-Webster Inc.Article about addition of words to Merriam-Webster Dictionary. "Breadth of use and 'staying power' are the two principal criteria Merriam-Webster editors use to nominate new words." (37)Merriam-Webster dictionary adds words by use to reflect not prescribe language norms. Nanotechnology has officially made it into the Merriam-Webster dictionaryNo definition listed – nanotech is cited as a passing example. The inclusion of nanotechnology in the Merriam-Webster dictionary helps to legitimize it as a serious science. Also adds to cultural currency and value of the term.
2000-21. Eisenberg, A. 3/2/00. A Wisp of Carbon, Whiff of Gases. NYT. P. G12Stanford University; Alex Zettle and team, University of California at Berkeley; Philip G. Collins, IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research CenterThe two teams have "demonstrated that nanotubes work well as tiny chemical sensors, sniffing out faint amounts of gas rapidly at room temperature." (G.12); "To make nanotubes, carbon vapor is condensed into sheets of graphite one atom thick, which spontaneously adopt a form resembling chicken wire... a sheet spontaneously rolls itself into a long, slender cylinder about a billionth of a meter in diameter." (G.12)with the introduction of female referees, the author says, "Amazing, isn't it, how jobs suddenly attain the complexity of nanotechnology or brain surgery when it's time to open up the ranks?" (8) This is the only mention of nanotechnology in the article.Manufacture of these nanotubes may be cheap because of their simplicity.electronics, computers"'The experiments suggest we can use gases to control the properties of nanotubes on the molecular scale'" (Collins, G.12)
2000-22. Hines, C. 3/4/00. Clinton tries to calm internet fears, calls for study on security. HC. P. 2President William ClintonReport on President Clinton's comments after wide-spread denial of service attacks on major internet sites. Clinton ordered a government study of internet security. Nanotech tied to investment and economic stability – also to privacy and personal security. As part of the speech, "The president… pledged continued support for nanotechnology, the work that allows information storage at an atomic or molecular level." (2)Computers also economic development and investment climate, also tied to security (electronic). Clinton is positioned connecting discoveries in nanotech to future computer integrity and security.Continued financial support as well as public opinion support. Nanotech used to reassure people of secure computer networks.
2000-23. Bell, E. 3/6/00. Danville Teen is Finalist in Top National Science Competition. SFC. P. A16Dilip Bobby Biswal, Monte Vista High School; Intel Science Talent Search"Biswal injected a chemical inside a sample of yeas cells to prevent he telomeres inside the cells from repairing themselves. As the cells reproduced, the telomeres got shorter and shorter." (A.16)Findings about telomeres "could have repercussions for illnesses like heart disease and cancer." (A.16)Biswal reads books like "Nano: The Emerging Science of Nanotechnology"Argument is that people who are influencing other fields are studying and reading about nanotech – nanotech as cultural phenomenonNanotechnology holds the interest of many young intellectuals involved with the Intel Science Talent Search, even if their research doesn't directly involve the field.
2000-24. Van, J. 3/6/00. Big Business Has Nanoparticles Maker Bursting Out of Office Space. CT. P. 2Joseph Cross, chief executive, and Gina Kritchevsky, vice president for technology, Nanophase Technologies Corp.None listedNanophase will benefit from the educational efforts associated with President Clinton's Nanotechnology Initiative"Nanophase has pioneered technology that produces particles so tiny they have different properties than the same material rendered in somewhat larger proportions." (2)medicine, chemicals, materials manufacturing, also investment and economic development Claim is made that Nanophase is alone in the consumer nanotech industry, and as such, is defining the market itself.
2000-25. Hall, C. 3/7/00. Science/ What Makes the World Work. SFC. P. D9Richard E. Smalley, Rice University's Center for Nanoscale Science and TechnologyPromotes Smalley's nanotech websiteNonlisted, promotional Smalley's website offers information on buckyballs, and an order form for fullerene nanotubes.N/AThis article highlights one website, Smalley's, where individuals can go to receive information on nanotechnology.
2000-26. Garreau, J. 3/12/00. From Internet Scientist, a Preview of Extinction. WP. P. A15Bill Joy, chief scientist and co-founder of Sun Microsystems Inc.None listed, speculationJoy agrees that nanoscience has the potential for inexpensive smart machines, but is worried that such technologies could "create the ability to unleash self-replicating, mutating, mechanical or biological plagues." (A.15)None listedDisease, societal impacts This look at the darker side of nanotechnology from an industry leader helps to illustrate how what's being touted as revolutionary and good could just as easily be revolutionary and destructive.
2000-27. Markoff, J. 3/13/00. Technologists Get a Warning and a Plea From One of Their Own. NYT. P. C1Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun MicrosystemsJoy has "issued an impassioned critique of uncontrolled progress in digital, biological and materials sciences." (C.1)"'The 21st century technologies -- genetics, nanotechnology and robotics -- are so powerful they can spawn whole new classes of accidents and abuses'" (Joy, C.1)Most industry technologists take the stance that any negative effects of a technology will be far outweighed by its positive effects; new technologies will be particularly dangerous because they are being driven by the commercial sector rather than by the militaryDisease -= societal impactsThough Joy is a well-respected industry leader, his doomsday predictions are being scoffed at; this is not surprising given the almost mythical concept of nanotechnology as a universal fix to the world's problems that many people hold.
2000-28. Tasker, F. 3/16/00. Doctors make the internet a controversial medical tool. Miami Herald. P. 1ASteve Brown, chief executive, Health Hero Network"By year's end it [the 'Health Buddy'] will be able to directly transmit blood pressure, temperature, blood coagulation, potassium and calcium levels… It will be done painlessly, using new nanotechnology to draw small molecules of blood products through the skin without piercing it with a needle." (1A)N/Aa 'Health Buddy' will allow chronically ill patients to report their status to their doctor daily without an office visitmedicineNanotechnology in combination with current technologies is providing a way to increase patient care while decreasing costs to insurance companies and HMOs.
2000-29. Markoff, J. 3/17/00. IBM Achieves Advance In Memory for Computers. NYT. P. C.2Currie Munce, IBM Research's director of storage systems and technology; Shouheng Sun and Christopher Murray, IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Liesl Folks and Andreas Moser, Almaden Research CenterThe scientists "discovered chemical reactions that cause tiny magnetic particles, each no larger than a few thousand atoms, to assemble themselves at precise intervals like a company of soldiers coming to attention on a parade ground." (C.2); "the researchers combined iron- and platinum-containing molecules in a heated solution." (C.2)The scientists claimed "that they had achieved a technological breakthrough that could result in disk drives capable of holding more than one trillion bytes of data." (C.2); Nanotechnology may one day replace current microelectronic systemsThe new disk drives will hold more than 100 times the information of current drives; self-assembly is likely the key to successful nanotech work; the scientists have arrayed particles 1/20,000 the width of a human haircomputers"The new magnetic nanoparticles could boost storage densities to as high as 150 gigabits per square inch" (C.2) (current densities top out at 35.3 gigabits/sq in)
2000-30. 3/17/00. Business Digest. NYT. P. C.1IBM scientistsN/AThe scientists "achieved a breakthrough that could result in one-inch disk drives capable of holding 100 times the data of the most sophisticated existing hard drives." (C.1)N/AcomputersGreater storage devices could change the way we view many electronic devices, from computers, to music and video storage devices, making them more efficient, smaller, and cheaper.
2000-31. Markoff, J. 3/19/00. Dr. Frankenstein, Please Call Your Office. NYT. P. 4.1Bill Joy, chief scientist at Sun Microsystems; IBM scientistsIBM's process "permits chemical assemblers to self-assemble tiny magnetic particles into a perfectly aligned array of dots, each composed of several thousand atoms" (4.1)"'The 21st-century technologies -- genetics, nanotechnology and robotics -- are so powerful that they can spawn whole new classes of accidents and abuses'" (Joy, 4.1)The biggest danger and threat is self-replicationenergy, computers, medicine, social implications Despite his warnings, "Mr. Joy believes that within several decades similar advances will lead to incredibly low-cost solar power, vastly more powerful computers and cures for everything from cancer to the common cold." (4.1); Nanotechnology may have the potential to advance or destroy humanity.
2000-32. Flam, F. 3/20/00. Scientists grasping the elements of life/microtweezers can manipulate molecules. PI. P. D01.Yale Goldman, Arjun Yodh, University of Pennsylvania; Stephen Chu, physicist, Stanford University"Laser cooling works by creating what Chu calls 'optical molasses' - lots of crossed laser beams that bounce off individual atoms and slow them down." (D01); Goldman is studying muscle fibers by "grabbing them with optical tweezers and moving them around to try to discern their mechanical properties." (D01)"'To understand the true behavior of a molecule, you have to study it in isolation - something possible only with high-powered microscopy and some kind of fine-scale tweezers.'" (Chu, D01)The optical tweezers can manipulate things without actually touching them; they allow the study of forces acting between individual moleculesDNA manipulation, physiologyNanotechnology is beginning to show results in understanding what makes up the human body and the interactions that are always occurring within it.
2000-33. Amato, J. 3/21/00. Book World; Let's Get Small. WP. P. C.03Joseph A. Amato, authorN/A - book review"Familiarity with the ever-expanding microscopic realms probed by our better and better instruments certainly keeps stoking the imagination about the small and invisible." (C.03)"Where dust was once the most ordinary fact of life and the smallest thing visible to the human eye, however, science and technology have revolutionized our ideas of dust." (C.03)environmentalism, medicineThe author suggests that our fascination with tiny things will be the drive of the 21st century which will lead to new discoveries, and also new fears.
2000-34. Markoff, J. 3/23/00. A New Era In Technology for Computers. NYT. P. C.1Mark Reed, chief technology officer, Molecular Electronics Corporation"a team of American computer researchers and chemists have quietly formed a company trying to open a new era of digital electronics by creating immensely powerful computing circuits bases on trillions of individual building blocks, each no larger than a single molecule." (C.1)Nanoscience "might someday replace today's multibillion-dollar chip manufacturing factories with pure chemical processes growing tiny electronic circuits into vast arrays that make huge memory systems and perhaps powerful parallel computers." (C.1)The Molecular Electronics Corporation was founded, in part, by 3 chemists, a theoretical physicist, and an electrical engineer.computers, electronics, tied to economic development and possible investmentLow-cost manufacturing of nanotech electronics could challenge the semiconductor industry and revolutionize chip-making
2000-35. Valovic, T. 3/26/00. Doubter In the Cyber-Church. BG. P. 5.1Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun MicrosystemsJoy "recently made headlines with a piece in Wired magazine that warned darkly against uncontrolled progress in genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics." (F.1)The age of the 'Cyber-Church' may be ending as people begin to focus on social considerations of technology's ends.Cyber-Church - a term used to "characterize the quasi-religious fervor that has gripped enthusiasts of the new communication technologies." (F.1)Social implications / aspects of nanotechnologyIf it is true that our technological fervor is cooling, then technologies such as nanotech can expect to meet increasing opposition in the coming years.
2000-36. Piller, C. 4/10/00. Tech Patriarch Sees Need to Keep Robotic, Gnetic Genies in Bottle. LA. P. 3Bill Joy, chief scientist at Sun Microsystems Joy "recently suggested that scientists step back from genetic engineering, robotics and nanotechnology" (3)According to Joy, "Humans are not ready to be gods, so we should pause long enough to think carefully before passing the point of no return with technologies that offer God-like powers" (3)Most industry leaders dismissed Joy's suggestion as "hysterical pessimism" (3)disease, arms control, social implications Even though many recognize the dangers of nanotechnology, its enormous potential is such that humanity is not likely to step away from its power.
2000-37. Powell, M. 4/16/00. Are Humans Doomed? Killer robots, doomsday microbes, computers beyond our control. WP. P. F.01Bill Joy, co-founder of Sun Microsystems; Eric Drexler; Christine Peterson, the Foresight InstituteThe "crusade he [Joy] and a handful of influential scientists are embarked on is… to challenge a scientific culture soaring too close to the sun on wings of wax." (F.01); "Peterson would ask research labs to agree to outside surveillance." (F.01)"'We are dealing now with technologies that are so transformatively powerful that they threaten our species'" (Joy, F.01)The three dangerous technologies are genetics, robotics, and nanotechnology; Drexler's similar theory is the 'gray goo' - "that someone might, inadvertently… manufacture a ravenous and invisible man-made machine or bacterium that would outstrip natural competitors and... turn life to dust in a matter of days." (F.01)environmentalism, medicineEven though many recognize the dangers of nanotechnology, its enormous potential is such that humanity is not likely to step away from its power.
2000-38. Allis, S. 4/16/00. I, Robot Will Self-Replicating Robots Rule Us? BG. P. D.1Bill Joy, co-founder and chief scientists of Sun Microsystems; Sherry Turkle, professor at MIT's artificial intelligence laboratoryJoy warns of technological misuse in a Wired magazine article"machines will probably take over the human race, and soon." (D.1); "Ordinary folk must participate in this conversation about our destiny, says Turkle, because it is too important to leave to artificial intelligence gurus who speak in unfathomable argot." (D.1)By 2030, computers will be a million times more powerful than those of today, and may be capable of creating their own separate robotic species.medicine, cultural shifts, social implications If Joy's vision does not come true, we will still be facing a culture where individuals must embrace robotics in order to survive. Human/robot amalgams will be the norm.
2000 - 39. Joy, Bill, 4/18/00. Technology Check. Washington Post. P. A.29Hans Morave - co-founder and chief scientist at Sun MicrosystemsWarns others about their work in the technological fields“Our most powerful 21st century technology-genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics- carry a hidden risk of huge dimension. Most of the risks heard have been either in science fiction or come from Luddites who bring to the debate little than an anti-technology rant, but this is no excuse for ignoring these questions. “New technological advances and how they can be used against us. The nearest -tem danger is the release of a deadly pathogen: a bio-engineered "white plague" that could be highly infectious, have a long incubation period and be targeted on specific groups. Nanotechnology poses the threat of "gray goo" which would out compete the existing biosphere – social implications If left unchecked, the new technological advances can enable genocide or result in the extinction of the species.
2000-40. Allis, S. 4/19/00. Future Shock? Scientist predicts humans will merge with machines. ATU. P. D6Bill Joy, co-founder and chief scientists of Sun Microsystems; Sherry Turkle, professor at MIT's artificial intelligence laboratoryJoy warns of technological misuse in a Wired magazine article; "machines will probably take over the human race, and soon." (D.1); "Ordinary folk must participate in this conversation about our destiny, says Turkle, because it is too important to leave to artificial intelligence gurus who speak in unfathomable argot." (D.1)By 2030, computers will be a million times more powerful than those of today, and may be capable of creating their own separate robotic species.medicine, cultural shiftsIf Joy's vision does not come true, we will still be facing a culture where individuals must embrace robotics in order to survive. Human/robot amalgams will be the norm.
2000-41. Henry, K. 4/30/00. Entrepreneur focuses on ion beam innovation. Baltimore Sun. no pageWalter Finkelstein, NanoFab, Inc."Like surgeons who use lasers to correct vision or remove wrinkles, engineers ca use NanoFab's focused ion beam machines… to change a chip's characteristics."; "'What my device does is change the characteristics of the memory chip or analog chip or digital chip so it improves, either by speed, increased density or whatever you want to do with the device to make your process a lot better'" (Finkelstein)"'It will save the semiconductor industry, or anybody who's doing this, a small fortune in both time and dollars, so they can improve their process and get [their products] (sic) out faster'" (Finkelstein)The ion beam machines emit a ray 1,800 times thinner than a human hair; NanoFab's customers include the NSA and the University of Marylandcomputers, electronic, military, (economic development and investment ? )"Though NanoFab's machines are designed to work with today's computers… Someday, they could have a ray so small it could be used for 'nanotechnology'"
2000-42. Feder, B. 5/8/00. Switching Gear May Lift Prospects For an Array of Miniature Machines. NYT. P. C.1Robert L. Batter, president and CEO of Cronos Integrated Microsystems; JDS Uniphase; Nortel Networks; Lucent Technologies"Various companies are introducing MEMS-based switches to control the paths of lightwaves through the rapidly expanding networks of optical fiber cables that make up the Internet's backbone. By bouncing the lightwaves off MEMS mirrors instead of running them through electronic switches, networks could improve Internet efficiency." (C.1)As MEMS become more advanced and less expensive, uses for them continue to increase, though still in specialized industries."MEMS have recently shown up in devices as diverse as movie projectors, DNA analysis kits, braking systems and airspeed indicators." (C.1)automotive industry, medicine, electronics, communication technologiesThe perfection and use of MEMS may pave the way for nanotechnology when it becomes available.
2000 - 43. Johnson, Nicholas. 5/8/00. High-Tech Industries Converging; Conference Sees Symbiotic Pluses. Washington Post. E.05Jennie Hunter-Cevera, president of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute; Baltimore institutes with collaboration from Goteborg University in Sweden and University of Bergen in Norway; Carey Kriz, CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine; Sylvan VenturesCollaborations with other institutes to provide online learning and medical advancesLack of technology and advanced available knowledge in hospitalsThe industries of biotechnology, information technology and e-learningStudy of collaborations of other institutes in providing similar programs capable of completion via the internet in biotechnology and medical advancesBiotechnology programs have already been aided by advances in information technology that have made discovering, processing and managing data faster and more accurate. Medical advances that can improve care, coming from biotech discoveries that are aided by advanced information technology, and become widespread through e-training programs that employ video teleconferencing over the Internet. Similar programs are planned for nanotechnology.
2000-44. Manier, J. 5/11/00. Gene Study Spotlights Ear's Speedy Hair Cells. CT. P. 16Peter Dallos, professor of neuroscience and other researchers at Northwestern University"Chicago scientists announced the discovery of a gene that churns out molecular motors for a group of inner-ear hair cells" (16)The discovery "may assist in the design of hearing aids or medical treatments for damaged inner-ear hair cells… Some experts even hope the discovery could provide an engine for tiny machines with industrial applications." (16)The hair cells are believed to be the body's fastest-moving parts; the gene is named Prestinmedicine, computers"The extreme microscopic tempo of outer hair cells may well have uses in the emerging field of nanotechnology, which strives to find applications for small machines I the construction of such devices as microchips or medical instruments." (16)
2000-45. Finley, M. 5/17/00. Projecting immortal technology. ATU. P. D6Michael Finley, article authorN/A - satireN/AThe article humorously looks at combining computers and human tissue to create super-beings.medicine, biomechanical engineeringEven though this is a satirical article, it raises valid issues of what could happen to the host body when injected nanobots malfunction or break down entirely.
2000 - 46. Ignatius, David. 5/17/00. The New Frankenstein. Washington Post. P. A.27Bill Joy of Sun Microsystems; Pentagon; Richard Smalley, A Nobel laureate in chemistry; William Haseltine, biotechnologist who heads Human Genome Sciences Inc. This was a presentation on the subject of future human existenceThe cleverer we get, the bigger the problems we create. And more democracy doesn't solve the problem, b/c in an information age, giving access to this knowledge-given that there are crazy people out there-only makes the problem worse. Current technological advances and how they can be used against us.These technological advances can include building of a molecular computer in which molecules will substitutes for logic gates, or building optical switches, which could soon replace electrical routers and transform the Internet, or designing tiny machines that will transform virtually every segment of economy. While celebrating the modern miracles of technology, they will eventually create the tools of human destruction : Biotechnology will create pathogens that can destroy life; nanotechnology will create tiny weapons that can subvert existence; robotics will create machines that will turn humans into slaves and then crush them.
2000-47. Barbash, F. 5/22/00. Want an Investment Edge?/ Choose a field of technology and learn all about it. HC. P. 4Eric Drexler; Bell Labs, IBM, Duke U., Caltech, U. of WisconsinNone listedfrictionless ball bearings, powerful semiconductors, computers, microscopic motors, fuel that could power rockets, lifesaving medical devicesNone listedmedical, auto, computers, space travel"So far, while research activity is well under way…no product is close to coming to market." (4)
2000-48. Mattox, K. 5/24/00. Ualbany Has big plans for nano world. ATU.P. E4New York State University at Albany, Institute for Materials Research and Applied Sciences; Assemblyman Jack McEnenyThe Institute for Materials Research and Applied Scientists hosted representatives for "seminars designed to outline IMRAS' nanotechnology capabilities, how to develop research projects in partnership with IMRAS and how to secure federal, state, and private funding." (E4)The University of Albany is reaching out to nanotechnology researchers and businesses in an attempt to bring more federal research money to New York.; "'We want to attract more entrepreneurs, more students, more scientists'" (McEneny, E4)"Scientists are working on nanotechnology projects to develop medical tools, stronger building materials and more efficient computers." (E4)medicine, materials manufacturing, computing, investment, economic development As more federal funding for new technologies such as nanotech becomes available, high-profile businesses and universities will follow the University of Albany's example and try to make themselves attractive candidates for funding.
2000-49. Austen, I. 5/29/00. 'Intelligent Ink' helping scientists create new computer chips. CT. P. 6Jeffrey Brinker, senior scientist who leads Sandia research team; Sandia - a Department o Energy laboratory operated by a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp."putting molecules into a solution that is squirted onto various surfaces with an inkjet printer to form patterns designed by a computer. Once on the surface, the molecules assemble themselves into the desired shapes, with no prodding necessary." (6)immediately: "to build tiny molecular scaffolds called nanostructures" ultimately: "to create ultrasensitive sensors for detecting nerve gas and biological weapons." (6)the transparent solution is called "intelligent ink"business, technology, biology, microelectronicsslowly making progress in nanotech, or at least so it seems
2000-50. 5/30/05. Future View Recharge your Wallet, According to these Predictions. DFP. P. 8AWorld Future Society opinionFuturists being discredited for their silly predictions about things such as nanotechnologyN/ACosmetics – social implications and discussion nanotechnology is being laughed at for trying to solve problems such as baldness, wrinkles, and bad teeth.
2000-51. Fountain, H. 5/30/00. 'Camera in a Pill' Views Digestive Tract. NYT. P. F3Given Imaging of Yokneam, Israel; FDA; Dr. Paul Swain, a gastroenterologist at the Royal London Hospital; Dr. Richard Siegel chairman of materials science and engineering at RPI"The camera takes and transmits several images per second, which are picked up by an array of flexible antennas and a receiver about the size of a personal stereo that are attached to a special belt. The images are stored in memory chips and then downloaded to a computer for viewing, either as still pictures or as a kind of home movie." (F3)pill sized camera has been successfully tested on animals and humans - not the clearest picture but good enough-camera can go places that doctors have trouble getting to -pill is excreted after 48 hours, battery lasts 6 - enough to travel through entire systemmedicalencourages even smaller cameras to be made with nanotech
2000-52. Eisenberg, A. 6/1/00. Unlike Viruses, Bacteria Find a Welcome in the World of Computing. NYT. P. G12Dr. James Collins, a professor of biomedical engineering at BU; Dr. Timothy Gardner, graduate student in Collins' research group; Dr. Stanislas Liebler at Princeton U.; Dr. Michael Elowitz, postdoctoral fellow of Liebler at Rockefeller U. Cellicon (mix of the words Cell, Control, and Silicon) Technologies created by Gardner and Collins" to engineer a circular section of DNA with two genes that inhibit each other, so the first gene is on while the second one is off...Those states can be though of as zero or 1...The gene network is prodded to switch from one state to the other by a dose of a particular chemical or a change of temperature. If the cell is given enough of the chemical...the inactive gene will turn on; by turning on, it turns off the other gene." (G12)"Can living cells be transformed into computers?" (G12)"The system consists of four genes put into a bacterium…a genetic circuit. Each of the first three genes inhibits the activity of the next gene down the line. The fourth gene controls the production of a fluorescent protein, so the pulses of fluorescence indicate the periodic output of the clock." (G12)biocomputing, chemistry, genetic engineeringusing DNA to create smaller computer parts
2000-53. Glanz, J. 6/4/00. Music of the Spheres: 'Carbon Is a Girl's Best Friend.' NYT. P. 4.7Chromatics, an a cappella group from GenevaN/Aa cappella groups sing about scientific things because "The language is so lyrical, and I think it lends itself to poetry." (47) - Lynda Williams"Cuz time rolls on and supplies will be gone of diamonds, coal and petroleum. But nanotechnology can build anything with fullerenes! Carbon is a girl's best friend." (47) - Lynda Williams, Carbon is a Girl's Best Friend (her rendition of Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend)Entertainment – nanotech in culturenanotech is being sung about for entertainment purposes
2000 - 54. Bennett, Jeff. 6/7/00. Wayne State University Researchers Welcome Installation of IBM Deep Blue. Detroit Free Press. P. 1CMichael Maas, director of IBM's Web server products; King Yang, a Wayne State associate professor of mech. Engineering; Erik Deuments, an associate professor in the U. of Florida's chemistry dept.; Dr. Mark Hughes, a professor at Wayne State U. School of MedicineInstallation of the computer and how it can help out in the studies of DNA molecules to help the body fight cancer and other life-threatening disease, and in other research areas. created a supercomputer, IBM RS/6000 SP, to do complex calculations and research on matters such as nanotech has processing and storage power as 128 regular PC's, can handle more things at once, and can do calculations a hundred times faster. Spent $500,000 on computer that is now worth $1 milComputers, medical applicationsa supercomputer was created to research nanotech, which will make even better computers and help with curing disease through microscopic machines
2000-55. Lattin, D. 6/9/00. A boundary Blurs/ Digital experts ask how computers affect the human soul. SFC. P. A21Bill Joy, cofounder of Sun Microsystems; Rev. Anne Foerst, doctor of Theology, and ordained Lutheran minister, works at AI Lab at MIT; Ray Kurzweil, sci fi writer; Mitch Marcus, professor of AI at U. Pennstudy robots' behaviors and interactions with humans to perfect themtheologians, Christians, and Jews are studying the spiritual ethics of creating robots that are human-like and have intelligence Kismet and Cog are human robots scientists are studying and perfecting In '50's and '60's AI focused on doing computational calculations; now they are working on making robots more personal and giving them a face and bodyAI, robotics, computers, societal dynamics and social implications of nanotech – including spiritual dimensions of possible inventions.mixing genetics, nanotech and robotics to create the human like robots that mimic our behaviors; has helped in determining what makes us human and have a soul.
2000-56. 6/9/00. Researchers may gain ability to 'grow' tiny computer chips. HC. P. 3Angela Belcher of the University of Texas at Austin; Gary Harris, director of Howard University's section of the National Science Foundation's National Nanofabrication Users Networkusing same idea as oysters use to make pearls to grow miniaturized computer chips: "The sort of molecules that enable germs to identify...their target cells - also bind materials...used in high-tech electronics, such as silicon... Once attached to such substances...a viral molecule could serve as a template...for the growth of super-thin threads of semiconductors. In the same way, proteins secreted by oysters or abalones control the arrangement of calcium compounds to create the animals' shells, and cells embedded in a mineral matrix direct the construction of bone." (3)using nanotech to create smaller computers because right silicon seems to be reaching its limit of what it can do. For the past 30 years, number of electronic devices that could fit on silicon chip doubled, now it is slowing down. Pentium III processor has 28 million transistors 180 nanometers wide, need to brig that down to 100 by 2005.computers"It's the first step in integrating biological molecules and inorganic molecules that have technological importance…represents a major technological breakthrough in the field of nanotechnology." (3)
2000-57. Piller, C. 6/12/00. The Cutting Edge: Focusing on technology; Old Idea Inspires Breakthrough Device on a Very Small Scale. LA. P. 1Chad Mirkin, chemistry professor at Northwestern U.; Robert Hamers, chemistry professor at U. of Wisconsin at Madison; Calvin Quate- nanotech expert at Stanford Chad Mirkin is creating a dip-pen nanoplotter to create circuits thousands of times smaller and faster using nanotech: dip nanoplotter pen tip into organic molecules and found 8 identical structures 15 nanometers wide.thanks to photolithography, circuits have gotten down to 130 nanometers wide, but they need to be smaller, so the nanoplotter may be the answer need to bring nanoplotter down to scale of 5-10 nanometers so we can pinpoint genetically linked diseases and antibodies that prevent diseases one nanometer - half the diameter of a DNA strand, the genetic blueprintmedical, computers, nanotech methods"scientists could rapidly test for chemical interactions, identify disease organisms and test their sensitivity to drugs or other chemicals - potentially leading to new treatments of diagnostic tools." (P1)
2000-58. 6/17/00. Technology, Past and Future. CT. P. 26Bill Joy, chief scientist for Sun Microsystems; None detailed – opinion piece Joy believes that nanotech has more power to create destructive machines than constructive No specific data reportedAI, robotics, computers, genetic engineeringPBS show took family and put them in 1900 home living 1900 lifestyle and it proved how great technology is and how much we appreciate it, so while there are risks of tech there is also great potential
2000-59. Brand, S. 6/19/00. Is technology moving too fast? TIME. P. 108terrorist Ted Kaczynski; article author Stewart Brandauthor's opinion, speculationBrand believes technology is moving too fast and will someday rule the worldN/A, author does not use evidence to back up opinioncomputers, biotech, genetic engineering, religion, culturescientific advances in fields such as nanotech and biotech are moving too rapidly and it makes them and the society that they drive unstable. An unstated component of this article is the assumption that nanotech is moving and developing rapidly.
2000-60. Naisbitt, N. 6/19/00. Will low tech replace high tech? TIME. P. 108. J. Paul Getty Center in LA; Terry Erwin, a research entomologist and curator at Smithsonian InstitutionN/A, opinion"Someday nanotechnology may make manufacturing products from raw materials in one part of the world and shipping them to another" (108)No specific data reportedtransportationPresupposition that nanotech will achieve specific goals. Yet, article has little evidence to support the stated goals. Nana Naisbitt believes that in a million years, low tech will replace high tech
2000-61. Lemonick, M. 6/19/05. Will tiny Robots build diamonds one atom at a time? TIME. P. 94President Clinton, Richard Feynman, Opinion – speculationnanotech will be able to create chips, shoes, steaks, medical devices, anything! within 25 years, nanotechnologists expect nanomachines Clinton funded $500 million to nanotech researchmedical, computers, biotech, societal implications, some critics worry that self replicating nanobots will not be able to stop and will take over the body quicker than cancer cells
2000-62. Swisher, K. 6/19/00. Boom Town: A contract with WSJ. P. B1Newt Gingrich, ex-speaker of the House; Silicon Valley vs. Washington, D.C.; Stanford U.'s Hoover InstitutionGingrich is traveling out west to visit Silicon Valley and VC's (venture capitalists) and tech startup companies to get more info on technologyGingrich believes the upcoming technologies are biological research, nanoscience, and info tech Gingrich has been studying tech since 1960's and has always been tech-savvy believes tech can help save healthcare systembiotech, computers, information technology, healthcareGingrich believes that the government needs to think more about technology right now, and behave more entrepreneurially like the tech companies.
2000-63. Aaron, K. 7/2/00. High-tech man for all seasons. ATU. P. D1.George McNamee, head of First Albany Cos. Inc.Speculation"McNamee is convinced that new energy sources will be necessary to sate electricity-hungry devices." (D1) (such as nanobots) "Fuel cells, robotics, nanotechnology -- 'he [McNamee] was very, very prescient about those things a decade ago.'" (D1)electronics, robotics, energy sourcesNanotech has the best change of being advanced when people with financial backing and technological know-how like McNamee are in positions to make funding and research decisions.
2000-64. Ackerman, T. 7/23/00. Imagine That/ Futurists provide glimpses of tomorrow's possibilities. HC. P. 33Charles Kettering, inventor; Oliver Markley, the UH-Clear Lake professor of future studies; U of Houston professor John Lienhard; Isaac Asimov; U of Maryland physics professor Robert ParkFuturists study the past, finding trends to help predict the future.thanks to futurism Richard Smalley was able to discover buckyballs because sci fi /futurists got him interested in the field of nanotech. FutureFocus 2000 conference will attract more than 800 futurists Leo Szilard got many ideas on the atomic bomb from the H.G. Wells book Things to Comescience fiction, futurism"nanotechnology, the science of the ultrasmall that has become a favorite of some contemporary science fiction writers." (33)
2000-65. Feynman, R. 7/25/00. Building Machines from the Atoms Up. Boston Globe. P. F2article author Chet Raymo, professor of physics at Stonehill College; physicist Richard Feynmann; Mihail Roco, a senior adviser for nanotech at National Science Foundationopinionauthor skeptically talks about how nanobots will assemble into a chair, computer, cancer cell killing machines, "gray goo" to disassemble enemies' things and peopletiny red spider mites, barely visible to naked eye are huge and clear in microscope 10 quadrillion atoms in allmedical, military, computersauthor agrees with Feynmann in that there is no reason why we couldn’t create objects from the atom up "What nature does, we also can do - by borrowing nature's DNA technology." but does not believe that it will be within 30 years, maybe 100.
2000-66. Feeley, G. 7/30. Sceince Fiction and Fantasy; Black Writers, Old and Young, Staking their Claims on the Genre. WP. P. X04Nalo Hopkinson, sci fi writer; Gregory Feeley, book reviewer (article authorN/A book reviewreviews the book saying that it is not very believable and has little evidence to back it upNalo Hopkinson - 1998 novel Brown Girl in the Ring and Midnight Robberscience fiction"Although the novel makes occasional reference to nanotechnology, quantum computers and interstellar travel, Hopkinson has no real interest in science fiction per se. " (X.04) -nanotech is seen as scientific proof for futuristic ideas
2000-67. 8/1/00. Dangers of GNR Technologies. LA. P. 8article authors Devin Thomas of Sierra Madre and T.A. Happenheimer of Fountain Valley Review of Genetic Nanotechnology, Robotic (GNR) technologiesarticle consists of two opinions of GNR - both are skeptics, especially of nanotech, though the first one says it sounds very scary if it is perfectedNone listedGNR technologies - genetic engineering, nanotechnology, robotics, societal implications"Of all the GNR technologies…nanotechnology has the greatest potential for the destruction of our planet - no scratch that - our solar system." (8)
2000-68. Pollack, A. 8/10/00. Researchers Harness DNA for Tiny Motors that Could Widen Use of Genetic Code. NYT. P. C5Bell labs and Oxford U.; Bernard Yurke, a physicist at Bell; Nadrian Seeman, a professor of chemistry at NYU; Nanogen, a biotech company in San Diego; James Tour, professor of chemistry at Rice U.; Andrew Turberfield, a physicist at Oxford; Allen Mills and Friedric Simmel of Bell; Jennifer Neumann, graduate student at Rutgers U. "molecular tweezers: 1) The device self-assembles in open form, with strands B and C having regions that correspond to parts of strand A. 2) Strand D is added, with regions that correspond to the previously unmatched parts of B and C, essentially closing the device. 3) Strand E, more fully complementing D, is added, drawing D away from B and C and reopening the device." (C5) tweezers made from DNA to pick up and move atoms"The number of electronic components that can fit on a silicon chip has been doubling every 18 months or so." (C5) "The space between each letter in the genetic code is 0.34 nanometer…existing electronics technology makes features about 100 nanometers in size, more than 100 times as large" (C5)chemistry - DNA, computers, biotechBreakthrough for nanotech, although article still says it may be at least a decade before it has practical applications
2000-69. Fowler, T. 8/15/00. Smaller is Better. HC. P. 71Jim Tour, CEO of Molecular Electronics Corp.; IBM; Compaq; Mark Reed, Yale physicist; Dick Smith, director of science and technology forecasts for Coates & Jarratt; Rick Smalley; Technology Inc.; Nanophase Technologies"The product [DRAM (computer memory)] will most likely be a combination of existing silicon technology and molecular technology" (71)"They were the first to record electrical current through a single molecule, the first to demonstrate a molecular switch that can turn on and off, and the first to demonstrate a molecular form of DRAM, or computer memory, that would actually hold data for 10 minutes after the power is turned off." (71) government issued $500 million research fund for nanotech earlier in the year computers"Molecular Electronics…may produce working prototypes in the next 12 to 18 months" (71) - building up the company and nanotech's progress "Five years ago, people would laugh at you if you said you believed in that mumbo jumbo of nanotechnology." (71)
2000-70. Powell, K. 8/17/00. Science File/ An Exploration of Issues and Trends Affecting Science. LA. P. 2President Clinton; Edwin Jager, graduate student at Sweden's Linkopings U., Scheffer Meltzer of USC's Laboratory for Molecular Robotics; Kristofer Pister of UC Berkeley lab; DARPAmicrochip technology: "created a flat version of the arm by applying layers of gold and a conducting polymer on a silicon wafer in specific patterns and then etching out desired shapes. Then a 'glue' layer was dissolved to release the 3-D functioning arm...140 arms were made on one quarter of the 10- centimeter wafer: Each arm consisted of an elbow joint...a wrist joint and two to four finger joints, each independently controlled." (2)tracking devices that can be used for sensor ants that will check soil and weather conditions or can be used to track kidsNEMS -nanoelecromechanical systems $74 mil nanoscience research initiative, $495 mil initiative from fed. Gov't medicine, sensor technology, computers"It's always been science fiction, you know, robots in the body…and now it's real. This is one step, one demonstration of the possibilities of microsystems technology." (2) - Edwin Jager
2000-71. Markoff, J. 8/18/00. Scientists Advance on Path to Make Electronics Tinier. NYT. P. C5UCLA chemists; James Ellenbogen, scientist for Mitre Corp.; James Heath and Fraser Stoddart, UCLA chemists; Yale U; Rice U"The catenanes consist of two tiny mechanically interlocked rings created from atoms linked in a circle. The group discovered that one ring can be stimulated to move between two different states - for instance from one angle to another - with respect to the other ring." (C5)"to produce electronic circuitry on a molecular scale." (C5)"Hewlett-Packard…developed a nonreversible switch based on a molecular known as rotaxane." (C5) to make it reversible, be able to turn on or off, they discovered catenanes, a type of organic molecule composed of two interlocking ringselectronic devices"The latest achievement is a significant step toward building a new generation of memory devices and computers that are far more powerful and consume less power than today's microelectronic systems." (C5)
2000-72. Wood, C. 8/21/00. The future: Will it work? Maclean's. P. 12-19George Washington U.; Stanley Williams, director of Quantum Structures Research Institute for Hewlett-Packard LabsNone listedarticle talks about new emerging technologies, like nanotech and its advantageswill not see results of nanotech research for 20-30 yearscomputers, medical, societalmass customization - individuals will be able to customize everything Robo-surgery GMO's to treat diseases
2000-73. Wood, C. 8/21/00. Nanotech: How to play with atoms. Maclean's. P. 26Samy Mahmoud, dean of engineering and design at Carleton U.; Richard Feynman; U. of Toronto; Physicist Alastair McLean at Queen's U.; None listedairplane wings and engine parts, paints, medical nano-devices1981 invention of Scanning Tunneling Microscopeairplanes, medicalarticle author admits that it will be a while before nanobots can run around a junkyard collecting scrapwood and put together a table, but he believes that more practical applications are a definite possibility
2000-74. 9/6/00. New Molecular Switch has Staying Power. ATU. P. D6UCLA chemists; IBM; HP; Motorola"In the future, arrays of billions of circuits would self-assemble by means of chemical reactions, which would make individual circuits far less costly." (D6)making computer parts smaller$500 mil research initiative from President Bill Clintoncomputersmolecular switch created to turn on, off, and on again - breakthrough for creating tiny switches and transistors
2000-75. Chang, K. 9/12/00. Can Robots Rule the World? Not yet. NYT. P. F1Bill Joy, U. of Lausanne, Switzerland; Ralph Merkle of Xyvex, a nanotech company in DallasNone listedthe goal of mindless nanobots is to fight off cancer cells in the bodynanobots would be 1/25,000th of an inchmedicine, robotics, social implicationsthe problem some are trying to solve is making the nanobots self-reproducing, but others think that this is just dangerous
2000-76. Hall, C. 9/18/00. Scientists Use Single Carbon Molecule to Form Tiniest Transistor. SFC. P. A6Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Mike Naughton, a physicist at Boston College; physicist Paul McEun and chemist Paul Alivisatos of Lawrence Berkeley Lab; Eric Wong, physical chemist at UCLA"The transistor works by applying a minute charge to the carbon-6, inducing a single electron on one electrode to hop off, bore through the 'soccer ball' - an effect known as 'quantum tunneling' - and then hop on the other electrode." (A6)"A single soccer-ball shaped molecule of carbon sandwiched between gold electrodes has been fashioned into the smallest transistor ever built, scientists recently reported." (A6)"The new gizmo is the smallest example yet of the circuit- controlling workhorses known as 'field-effect transistors.'" (A6)computers"It could point to a new strategy of memory storage in which a system of nano-scale switches and valves would hold the information." (A6)
2000-77. 9/19/00. Technology Boom Too Tempting for Many Government Scientists. NYT. P. A1Pete Beckman computer scientist at Los Alamos labs in NM; David Pehrson deputy associate director of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Mim John, VP of Sandia's California division in Livermore; Robert Dye of Los Alamos labs; Dave Rakestraw of SandiaNone listedmany high level scientists are leaving government jobs for private startup companies because the pay is so much betterat Advanced Computing Laboratory, 41% left in last year, usually it is about 25% in private companies. Weapons, business and research climate for nanotechscientists are being paid millions of dollars to work on technologies such as nanotech
2000-78. Van, J. 9/21/00. Gold and Silver Mix a Bonanza in Genetic Tests? CT. P. 1Joseph Firca, Nanosphere's chief operating officer; Steven Wolinski, a Northwestern AIDS researcher; Chad Mirkin, a Northwestern chemistry professor"The key to the technology is the discovery...of a way to bind clusters of gold molecules called nanoparticles to genetic probes that seek out and stick to targeted DNA material. This target could be a piece of DNA found in the HIV virus, or DNA from anthrax, tuberculosis or other infectious agents. Once the probe sticks to its DNA target, the gold serves as a beacon that becomes visible when the sample is washed with a solution containing silver, something similar to chemicals used in a darkroom to develop a photograph. The silver binds to the gold nanoparticle to make it appear much larger. The result can be illuminated and seen using a $60 flatbed light scanner. The process is called scanometric DNA array detection." (1)creating disease testing devices using nanotech…Nanosphere already has working models of devices that can detect anthrax and tuberculosis infectionfor 15 years scientists could detect small amounts of DNA but it was too expensive, up to $60,000 for the confocal microscope…now it is less expensivemedical - disease testingLess expensive, more efficient way to detect diseases…the company says it will be about 2 years before they are able to produce and sell a working device
2000-79. Vaughn, S. 9/24/00. Making it; For Technology Wizard, Innovation Is Worth More Than the Cash It Generates Making It. LA. P. 1Bill Joy - co-founder of Sun Microsystems now based out of Colorado; Scott McNealy, chairman and CEO of SunDescribes Joy's successesJoy working on reliable computing to make computer technology less likely to fail, and more enduring 1970's Joy had his start by making changes to Unix open source code improved Java language so that 1.7 million people use it nowcomputers, ethics, societal implications - "science needs a stronger moral code" (1) -Bill Joy"Unlike atomic bombs, this next generation of technology - including killer viruses, out-of-control robots and self-replicating nanobots - may be relatively facile and inexpensive to produce by 'rogue users' as means for mass destruction" (1)
2000-80. 10/00 Vol 21 Iss 10. Twenty things that will be obsolete in twenty years. Discover. P. 84article author Eric Hasseltineopinioncurrent memory devices will be obsolete; Coronary bypass procedures will be done away with, replaced by growing new blood vessels; genetic diseases will be eliminated more easily advances in computer technology double every 18 months - Moore's law Magnetic disks double in storage capacity every 9-12 monthscomputers, medicinetechnologies are advancing rapidly right now, even surpassing Moore's law
2000-81. Fowler, T. 10/6/00. Thinking small is way one firm could hit it big. HC. P. 1Richard E. Smalley, Rice U. professor; Bob Gower -co-founder of Carbon Technologies with Smalley; Dalen Keys, global tech director for DuPont iTechnologies; Dick Smith, director of forecasts in science, tech and engineering for Coates & Jarratt; Rice researchers Jim Tour and Naomi HalasNon listedCarbon Nanotechnologies has contract with Rice U. to manufacture nanotubes with Rice's technology. Carbon Nanotech will then sell out these tiny devices to companies that need experimental parts for computers, drug delivery systems, etc."Nanotubes, 1/50,000th the width of a human hair, conduct heat and electricity better than copper or gold and have 100 times the tensile strength of steel yet a sixth of its weight" (1) price per gram of nanotubes went down from $2500 to $1000computers, medical - drug delivery systems"By 2002, Gower expects the company to be able to produce about 20 pounds per day, and by 2003 or 2004, hundreds, perhaps even thousands, of pounds per week. That would be enough volume to support large-scale manufacturing of products." (1)
2000-82. Brown, J. 10/9/00. Finding some middle ground in a world obsessed with the new and impatient with the old. NYT. P. C4John Seely Brown, head of Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center; Paul Duguid, researcher at UC@Berkeley; Bill Joy, a founder of Sun MicrosystemsNone listed – speculationBrown is tired of people saying that the Internet is taking over the world, and forgetting about physical things "as brick-and-mortar stores give way to clicks" (C4)None listedcomputersJoy predicts that technologies like nanotech could lead to biological disaster and destroy the earth, while Brown laughs at futurists saying that they count "one, two, three, one million." (C4)
2000-83. Fleming, C. 10/18/00/ European Fund Balances Public, Private Duties. WSJ. P. 1European Investment Fund; Jim Martin managing partner of Add Partners; EIF chairman Walter Cernoia; Jacques Lilli, EIF's senior VC officer; Rudy Aernoudt European Commission specialistNone listedEIF is funding technologies such as nanotech and biotech that are overlooked by a majority of funding companies EIF, one of largest VC funds, has $3.4 billion to invest in next three years "67 private banks, who between then held 20% of EIF's capital, complained at the time about the buyout terms, about 20 remain today with a total 10% of the capital." (1)business - VC funding; biotech, new materialsEIF is funding new technologies such as nanotech whereas other companies simply overlook them as being unimportant or risky
2000-84. Wong, S. 10/19/00. Wireless future looks limitless. CT. P. 14Rich Howard VP for wireless research at Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs; Juri Mtisoo, VP of Semiconductor Industry Association; Carl Zetie, analyst with Giga Information Group; Thad Starner, assistant professor of computing at Georgia Institute of TechnologyNone listedworking on improving wireless technology, though they say it will be a while before nanotech will come into playestimated increase to 61.5 mil wireless device users by 2003 from 7.4 mil in 1999 internet, wireless technology, computers"but it will still be a while before truly exotic, molecular-level components will be produced through advances in the nanotechnology field." (14)
2000-85. Knox, A. 10/26/00. Region gets $10.5 Million for Nanotechnology Effort. Philadelphia Inquirer. P. D01.Sam McCullough, PA's secretary of community and economic development; Kambiz Pourrezaei, Drexel U. engineering professor; David Luzzi, U. of Penn materials scientist; Barlet Stein, executive VP of Ben Franklin of Southeastern PennsylvaniaNanotech Center is working on linking corporations to manufacture products and universities and research centers to perfect the technology behind the products$10.5 mil grant for three years from Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority to fund creation of a Nanotechnology Center "enhancing the performance of everything from weapons propellants to computer hard drives to medical diagnostics" (D01)nanotech promises materials lighter than steel but 100 times as strongmedical, computer memory, economic developmentNanotechnology Center is planning to create a "nanotech valley" in Philadelphia, PA much like Silicon Valley in CA. This does not look promising because the taxes are high and the people's interest is low
2000-86. Mucha, P. 10/28/00. All too human when it comes to thinking up exotic new life forms, the minds behind television's 'Star Trek' Series have long been limited. PI. P. D01. article author, Peter MuchaN/A movie review1987 Star Trek: Next Generation added nanotechnology to their movieN/Ascience fictionnanotech is being used in sci fi movie and is portrayed as futuristic (not many other sci fi references to nanotech in previous 2000 articles)
2000-87. Abate, T. 10/30/00. Biotechnology - It's Not Just for Pharmaceutical Firms Anymore. SFC. P. D1John Armstrong, retired IBM VP for technology; David Magnus, Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Rev. John Minogue, president of DePaul University; National Institutes of Health; Department of Energy; Geron Corp.; Richard Klausner, head of the National Cancer Institute; Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun Microsystems"Concerned about a growing public backlash against the latest advances of science and technology, major research organizations are taking some preventative medicine." (D1)Scientists and researchers believe that facing hard ethical and social issues surrounding technology will help to "inoculate themselves against the kind of fear, misunderstanding and hostility that has greeted such things as genetically modified foods and Dolly, the cloned sheep." (D1)NASA and other companies are beginning to form task forces on ethics and technology to bridge the gap between pure science and social issues.cloning, internet surveillance, societal dynamics and impacts. Public understanding of science and technology Scientists need to take steps such as these to mold the social consciousness of nanoscience so that that public image of it isn't one of fear and apprehension. Scientists hope to counter voices such as Bill Joy, who says "'I may be working to create tools that will enable the technology that may replace our species.'" (D1)
2000-88. Boyd, R. 11/24/00. High-tech fears prompt scientists to ponder ethics. MH. P. 33AJohn Armstrong, retired IBM VP for technology; David Magnus, Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania; John Minogue, president of DePaul University; National Institutes of Health; Department of Energy; Geron Gorp.; Richard Klausner, head of the National Cancer Institute; Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun Microsystems"Concerned about a growing public backlash against the latest advances of science and technology, major research organizations are taking some preventative medicine." (33A)Scientists and researchers believe that facing hard ethical and social issues surrounding technology will help to "inoculate themselves against the kind of fear, misunderstanding and hostility that has greeted such things as genetically modified foods and Dolly, the cloned sheep." (33A)NASA and other companies are beginning to form task forces on ethics and technology to bridge the gap between pure science and social issues.cloning, internet surveillance, societal dynamics and impacts, public understanding of science and technologyScientists need to take steps such as these to mold the social consciousness of nanoscience so that that public image of it isn't one of fear and apprehension. Scientists hope to counter voices such as Bill Joy, who says "'I may be working to create tools that will enable the technology that may replace our species.'" (33A)
2000-89. Boyd, R. 11/24/00. Scientists Act to Thwart Backlash. ATU. P. A14John Armstrong, retired IBM VP for technology; David Magnus, Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Rev. John Minogue, president of DePaul University; National Institutes of Health; Department of Energy; Geron Corp.; Richard Klausner, head of the National Cancer Institute; Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun Microsystems"Concerned about a growing public backlash against the latest advances of science and technology, major research organizations are taking some preventative medicine." (A14)Scientists and researchers believe that facing hard ethical and social issues surrounding technology will help to "inoculate themselves against the kind of fear, misunderstanding and hostility that has greeted such things as genetically modified foods and Dolly, the cloned sheep." (A14)NASA and other companies are beginning to form task forces on ethics and technology to bridge the gap between pure science and social issues.cloning, internet surveillance, societal dynamics and impacts, public understanding of science and technologyScientists need to take steps such as these to mold the social consciousness of nanoscience so that that public image of it isn't one of fear and apprehension. Scientists hope to counter voices such as Bill Joy, who says "'I may be working to create tools that will enable the technology that may replace our species.'" (A14)
2000-90. Hall, C. 11/24/00. Big Development in the Lilliputian World of Nanotechnology/ Building machines invisible to the naked eye. SFC. P. A3Galen Stucky and other scientists at the University of California at Santa Barbara and in Japan; Carlo Montemagno, nanotech researcher at Cornell University; Norman Bartelt, materials physicist at Sandia; Hongjie Dai, Stanford University"Using an electron microscope two stories tall, a team of scientists at the University of California at Santa Barbara and in Japan unveiled weird three-dimensional images of finely etched glass" (A.3); Stucky's team developed the mathematical formulas needed to produce nanoscale images in 3-D, a system for making 'topographic maps' of structured glass." (A.3)Practical nanotech devices are a long way off, but these developments are laying the groundwork. The images "represent a new reality of chemical-trapping 'cages,' molecular pores and other structural elements as small as one-thousandth the diameter of a human hair." (A.3)medicine, environmentalism, materials manufacturing, computersThough nanotech is still in the experimentation phase, the work done now will be the basis for any practical applications of nanotechnology in the future.
2000-91. Chang, K. 11/25/00. Scientists Make a Bacteria-Size Machine work. NYT. P. A10Carl D. Montemagno, professor of biological engineering at Cornell University; Norman C. Bartelt, staff scientist at Sandia National LaboratoriesThe Cornell scientists reported that they "hooked up a tiny motor to a metal propeller and spun the propeller around at up to eight revolutions a second." (A.10); the Sandia scientists created a clump of tin that is pushed by chemical forces so that it "scurries around like an amoeba on a surface of copper, leaving behind a thin trail of bronze alloy." (A.10)"Since the motor draws its energy from the same organic molecules that power living cells, Dr. Montemagno suggests that scientists may one day be able to build robots much smaller than bacteria that will be able to repair cellular damage, manufacture medicines and attack cancer cells." (A.10)Bartelt's 'nanomotor' is "roughly as efficient as an automobile engine at converting chemical energy to mechanical horsepower." (A.10)medicine, nano-assemblyThese advances are moving nanotechnology "in a direction where the end point might actually be useful." (A.10)
2000-92. 12/4/00. Coming Up Next: Joining. TIME. P. 79Michael Francoeur, president of Joining Technologies; M.LT's Koichi MasubuchiNone listed -speculation"In the future… we will further refine the tools of intelligent robotic welding as well as employ 'virtual welding,' which will enable engineers to test new techniques" (79)Welding is moving to a state of refinement that it will be able to be applied on nanotechnology scales.weldingEven a seemingly mundane science such as welding will have huge implications when it comes to finally realizing many nanotech goals.
2000-93. Kher, U. 12/4/00. Coming up Next: Nanosurgery. TIME. P. 74NASA; The National Cancer InstituteNASA and the National Cancer Institute "plan to spend $12 million a year for the next three years to develop nanosensors… that will scan the body for the molecular signatures of cancer" (74)15 years from now, cancers and other diseases will be cured by nanotech sensors packed into an ingestible capsule."If engineered to carry drugs or genes, the sensors could treat cancers one cell at a time" (74)Medicine, economic development (investment), societal influenceLarge organizations are banking on nanotech yields soon, and are investing large amounts of money to back nanotech research.
2000 - 94. Suplee, Curt. 12/7/00. Nature's way might be path to smaller computer chips; researchres see potential for growing semiconductors like seashells. Washington Post. P. A02Angela Belcher of the University of Texas at Austin; Gary Harris, director of Howard University's section of the National Science Foundation's National Nanofabrication Users Network; Cornell Nanofabrication Facility at Cornell University; Chad Mirkin and T. Andrew Taton of the Center for Nanofabrication and Molecular Self-Assembly at Northwestern University. The electric pathways would be self-assembled like the delicate whorls of seashells, rather etched by conventional manufacturing techniques, and would be only a fraction the size of the smallest circuit components possible today. Nanoassembly processes are familiar in biology , and by borrowing ideas from nature, new ideas of manufacturing can be formed. Nature's proteins and computer chipsRelated research in biology on how proteins control crystal structures in shellsIntegration of living cells and electronic materials for neuroprosthetics, that could substitute for damaged nerve systems and to explore ways of building connections between electronic components for faster communication either electronically or optically.
2000-95. Davis, G. 12/8/00. Governor Picks UCSF Lead in Biomedicine/ Institute Will 'Help invent the future.' SFC. P. A31California Governor Gray DavisGovernor Davis "picked a consortium led by the University of California at San Francisco yesterday to spearhead a $900 million push to 'help invent the future.'" (A.31)Davis believes this program will help ensure "the birthplace of Silicon Valley and the biotechnology industry will not be left behind in 21st century sciences such as nanotechnology and gene-based medicine." (A.31)Economic development Nanotech and economic developmentAgain, substantial funds are being allocated for nanotechnology research and development.
2000-96. Markoff, J. 12/8/00. California Sets up 3 Centers for Basic Scientific Research. NYT. P. A30California Governor Gray DavisDavis "announced the establishment of three major research institutions dedicated to nanotechnology, biotechnology, and telecommunications and computing." (A.30)Davis believes this program will help to replicate the Silicon Valley entrepreneurial model.The nanotech portion of the funding will come in the form of the California Nanosystems InstituteBusiness, economic development and investmentAgain, substantial funds are being allocated for nanotechnology research and development.
2000-97. Weiss, K. 12/8/00. UCI to Share in $300-Million Grant. LA. P. B1California Governor Gray Davis; Scripps Research Institute; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Stanford University"Gov. Gray Davis… awarded $300 million to three new University of California research institutes" (B.1)The three institutes will "expand the frontiers of science and technology." (B.1); Davis believes that "'these three institutes will invest in the 21st century and create the same dividends that Stanford Research Institute and Stanford did when it helped span the Silicon Valley.'" (Davis, B.1)None listedresearch, business, economic development, investmentMost see this as a positive step in nanotech research, but some critics warn that "profit motives could distort lab results or discourage researchers from sharing information that might prove to be lucrative." (B.1)
2000-98. Davis, G. 12/8/00. Davis Awards Science Funds. LA. P. B1California Governor Gray DavisDavis "awarded $300 million in tax dollars to three new University of California institutes… that will explore the frontiers of science and technology." (B.1)"'We believe that these three institutes will invest in the 21st century and create the same dividends that Stanford Research Institutes and Stanford did when it helped spawn the Silicon Valley.'" (Davis, B.1)The funding will be in the form of $25 million/year for 4 years, plus private industry funds.materials manufacturing, electronics, computers, medicine, automotive industry, economic development and investmentMost see this as a positive step in nanotech research, but some critics warn that "profit motives could distort lab results or discourage researchers from sharing information that might prove to be lucrative." (B.1)
2000-99. 12/11/00. News Summary. NYT. P. A2the semiconductor industryNone listed – summary of various semiconductor newsN/AAn industry meeting is scheduled for 12/11/00 to discuss nanotechnology and the microelectronics industrycomputers, electronicsNanotech is considered a central part of the semiconductor industry
2000-100. 12/11/00. Meeting to Study New Facets of Microelectronic Industry. NYT. P. C16NTT DoCoMo; Lucent Technologies; University of California; Intel CorporationPresentations at the International Electron Devices meeting will include: NTT DoCoMo - engineers will "describe transistors that can be switched on and off based on the movement of a single electron" (C.16); Lucent - researchers will present "a data storage technology concept in which information is stored in an aerosol of floating crystals as small as three nanometers... in diameter." (C.16); UCal - researchers have fabricated the smallest chip to date at 20-nanometers; Intel - researchers have scaled the transistor down to 30 nanometersIntel believes that "raw computer processing power will make possible computer applications that are well beyond the range of today's desktop machines." (C.16)Intel's transistor is so small that "a vertical pile of 30 million of the tiny electronic switches would measure only one-inch high." (C.16)electronics, computersThis type of collaboration will let rival companies overcome similar problems and advance nanoscience research considerably.
2000-101. 12/11/00. Business Digest. NYT. P. C1the semiconductor industryNone listed – summary of various semiconductor newsN/AAn industry meeting is scheduled for 12/11/00 to discuss nanotechnology and the microelectronics industrycomputers. ElectronicsNanotech is considered a central part of the semiconductor industry
2000-102. 12/13/00. California's Big Boost To Sceince and Research. SFC. P. A22California Governor Gray DavisDavis "announced the creation of three new University of California research institutes" designed to "expand the frontiers of science, medicine, and technology." (A.22)"'We believe that these three institutes will invest in the 21st century and create the same dividends that Stanford Research Institutes and Stanford did when it helped spawn the Silicon Valley.'" (Davis, A.22)The nanotech portion of the funding will come in the form of the California Nanosystems Institutematerials manufacturingAgain, substantial funds are being allocated for nanotechnology research and development.
2000 - 103. Fleck, John. 12/13/00. Sandia entering world of ultra tiny. Albuquerque Journal. P. A1.Sandia National Laboratories, Tom Picraux (head of nanotechnology project), California institute of technology, President Clinton, Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman, Department of Energy and Microsystems and Engineering Science ApplicationsFrom building machines smaller than the head of a pin to assembling substances atom by atom. The use of "self assembly" to naturally line up molecules in remarkably ordered patterns. Trying to figure out nature's tricks for building things unimaginably small. The scientists at Sandia have worked on nanotechnology of one form or another for decades, but with the development of new tools enabling scientists to manipulate the smallest structures known, the field is at a crossroad. Researchers at Sandia have used "self-assembly" to make a substance that mimics the carefully layered toughness of a seashells and substances with networks of honeycomb like pores a thousandth the size of the tiniest features etched on today's best computer chips. The influence of Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman's speech in 1959 titled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom." Related work in manufacturing, molecular self-assembly. Researchers envision tiny chemical sensors, tougher kinds of aluminum and microscopic devices capable of precisely delivering drugs to patients.
2000 - 104. Fleck, John. 12/15/00. DOE Puts $20 million down for Start of Sandia Lab Buildings. Albuquerque Journal. P. B2Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, John Gordon - head of Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program, Microsystems and Engineering Science Applications complex MESA, Jeff BarkerDuring a day-long meeting, the discussion was about the labs' latest scientific accomplishments. Proposed building of Sandia Lab Buildings. Celebration of the very great science that goes into the laboratories. Research of others on the latest scientific advances and the new Sandia Lab Buildings. Various researchers talk about their work and their latest scientific research. Weaponry with the high-science trickery using low-tech tools, you can make materials basically with the equipment from your house. Nanotechnology has a potential to contribute to future nuclear weapons.
2000-105. Jochnowitz, J. 12/15/00. $500M Edge for Biotech Goals. Albany Times Union. P. A1Senate Majority Leader Joseph BrunoGen-NY-sis 5 year plan: $225 million - State Grants, $45 million - tax incentives, $225 million - federal, industry, and academic fundingThe funding "'…is going to thrust us [NY] in a huge leap forward in [biotech] competition with other states.'" (A1); one of the primary future job markets will center around nanotechnology researchGen-NY-sis (Generating Employment Through New York Science) is a $500 million proposal "aimed at giving New York an edge in the national competition for biotechnology grants, businesses, and jobs." (A1)nanotechnology, biotechnologyProviding funding for biotechnology and nanotechnology will purportedly put NY back in a grant-holding leadership position. The goals of the funding are to create jobs, and to further nanotech and biotech research.
2000-106. Davis, G. 12/17/00. Hotbeds for Scientific Vision. LA. P. M4California Governor Gray Davis; UCLA; UC Santa BarbaraUCLA and the UC Santa Barbara will explore nanotechnology research using the funds allocated by DavisThe creation of these institutes will "demolish walls between scientific disciplines and thereby improve academic culture." (M.4)The nanotech portion of the funding will come in the form of the California Nanosystems Institutemedicine, materials manufacturing, economic developmentAgain, substantial funds are being allocated for nanotechnology research and development.
2000-107. Page, L. 12/18/00. From Well-Wired Offices, Musings on Tomorrow's Technologies. NYT. PC26Cyrus L. Harmon, general manager of AffymetrixNone listed – speculation "'Thirty years from now we will look back and see how nanotechnology has changed the world.'" (Cyrus, C.26)None listedmedicine, materials manufacturingNanoscience will revolutionize manufacturing in medicine and elsewhere.
2000-108. Ignatius, D. 12/21/00. Transition to the 21st Century. WP. P. B07The CIAThe CIA issued a study called 'Global Trends 2015.'Sciences such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and materials science are noted 'wild cards' in the study.None listedSocietal issues and dynamics Even the CIA hasn't made a decision as to whether the supposed benefits of nanotechnology will outweigh the apparent risks.
2000-109. Hall, C. 12/26/00. Gene Map Just the Beginning/ A year of startling discoveries puts science on the path to new possibilities. SFC. P. A14Science journal"Scientists came up with the first live molecular-scale switch this year" (A.14)"The first practical applications of nanoscale science are not far off." (A.14)The nanotech light bulbs might be more expensive than regular bulbs, but they would never burn out.light bulbsNanotechnology made it onto the list of the top 10 most notable discoveries of 2000.
2000-110. Dinello, D. 12/28/00. Body Shopping Futurists Use the web to plan a world merging man, machine. CT. P. 5Eric Drexler; Nanotechnology magazineNone listed – speculation "Several 21st Century technologies -- prosthetics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, artificial intelligence and robotics -- may define a new era in human progress, the Post-Human Era." (5)Drexler's book "Engines of Creation" is available for free on The Foresight Institute Web Sitemedicine, computersNanotechnology may be one of the primary technologies that we will use to better ourselves and take the next evolutionary step for humanity.
2000-111. Klein, A. 12/30/00. Tomorrow's Forecast. Detroit Free Press. P. 3AEd Klobucher, World Future SocietyN/A - future speculationNanotechnology may become so advanced in the future that charcoal dust molecules may be arranged into diamonds.None listed molecular rearrangement, economic and social implications When and if this type of technology is developed, it will have serious implications on the world economies. When any material can be cheaply and easily mass-produced, our economies will have to shift to take this into account.
2000-112. Achenbach, J. 12/31/00. 2001 Ain't What It Used to Be. WP. P. B01Bill Joy, chief scientist for Sun Microsystems; '2001: A Space Odyssey'N/A - movie review"Technology is empowering, but it also bites back." (B.01)"Today's scientific breakthroughs involve biotechnology, genomics, photonics, nanotechnology" (B.01)Social implications / aspects of nanotechnology2001' gives a precedent for the dangers of our technology which ties in appropriately with Joy's disheartening prediction of the technological future.